Among the lipid metabolism-related gene sets, five (IDG017, IDG019, IDG030, IDG036, and IDG041) encode members of 86A, 86B, and 94A subfamilies of cytochrome P450 proteins that are related to fatty acid ω-hydroxylation in primary fatty alcohols and suberin monomer biosynthesis for formation of anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin in monocots and dicots [43–45, 47, 83–86]. Apart from seven genes with a negligible number of reads, the remaining 163 genes were divided according to their expression profiles into three groups, each of which had two subgroups. In wheat, FLOWERING LOCUS T1/VERNALIZATION3 (FT1/VRN3) encodes the ortholog of FT. The qRT-PCR of a selected set of genes, including those with a relatively lower expression level and those expressed in multiple tissues, further confirmed these results (Figure S1). Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). Although key genes regulating flower initiation and development are conserved, the mechanism regulating fertility is still not well explained. Both IDG004 and IDG025 code for anther-specific RTS-like proteins, required for male fertility and affecting tapetal development [56]. Particularly, 25 annotated gene sets are associated with pollen wall formation, of which 18 encode enzymes or proteins participating in lipid metabolic pathway, including fatty acid ω-hydroxylation, alkane and fatty alcohol biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Anther tissues were used in most of these studies because they are easy to isolate and specific in biological roles. The inflorescence in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and rice comprises single spikelets. Expression specificity of the candidate genes was estimated similarly. The diacylglycerol acyltransferase- (DGAT-) like protein encoded by IDG057 could also carry a plastidic peptide. The products encoded by IDG007, IDG018, IDG050, IDG055, and IDG056 were related to pollen wall formation [53–55]. … This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. was mainly focused on identification of early meiotic genes [15]. Wheat, barley and other species belonging to tribe Triticeae characteristically show an unbranched inflorescence called spike, the sessile spikelets of barley and wheat are directly attached to the inflorescence axis in a distichous phyllotaxis (Figure 1D and H for wheat; 1E and I for barley). Wheat is the staple food for 35 percent of the world's population and provides more calories and protein in the diet than any other crop [3] . This CER1 gene was downregulated in pistil or pistillody stamen [17], suggesting its specificity to stamen development. Relative expression abundance of the identified genes in different tissues based on RNA-seq data. A regulator of early flowering in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genetic insights into morphometric inflorescence traits of wheat Theoretical and Applied Genetics , Feb 2019 Genes in subgroup G2-2 were expressed more abundantly in the stamen relative to the vegetative tissues, but their expression levels in the pistil were not different from or even lower than those in at least one of the vegetative tissues. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 Highbury) was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy.Silica was present in the outer walls of all the epidermal cells including prickles and papillae of the glume and lemma awns. Based on statistical comparison of EST frequencies of individual genes in ES… identified 206 genes highly correlated with stamen and pistil development [17]. ESTs matching each PUT contig with ≥90% homology were recorded and classified according to their library origins from the five aforementioned tissue types. 400+ VIEWS. ... Morphology of Flowering Plants - Poaceae or Gramineae Family Inflorescence - Duration: 11:01. 116 Agricultural Administration2120 Fyffe Road Inflorescence represents a highly specialized plant tissue producing seeds for propagation. In this study, 1245 Affymetrix GeneChip array sets, from GPL3802 datasets, were analyzed to verify the overall expression value of each probe, in wheat. Phone: 740-223-4043, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. There are 2 rows of spikelets in front of each other. Very long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of the tryphine layer covering pollen grains and are needed for proper pollen-pistil signaling and fertility [50]. 2018, Article ID 6897032, 13 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6897032, 1The Applied Plant Genomics Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Bioinformatics Centre, Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu 210095, China. Wheat is the most widely grown cereal grain, with the total wheat output in 2016 at 724 million tonnes. b) spadix. Strobile - It is a spike in which the flowers develop in the axils of persistent membranous bracts. Great progress has been made in genetic analysis of rice inflorescence development in the past decades. Similar to FT1, the loss-of-function mutant of FT-A2 in the tetra- If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. Common wheat bears an inflorescence in the form of a spike, with a main axis of two ranks of lateral sessile distichousspikeletsdirectlyattachingtotherachis.Sucha structure is different to that of rice, which forms second- arybrancheswithinitsinflorescence.IntheTriticeaetribe, which includes important crops like wheat, barley (Hor- deum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale), the number of … Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Supplementary 1. a) wheat. Forty-nine of the identified gene sets were annotated via homology search and classified into five categories according to their putative biological functions (Table 2). Subcellular locations of the proteins were predicted using the TargetP 1.1 server [39] (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TargetP). Silica deposition in the lower glume, lemma, and palea of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. The following thermal cycle profile was observed: 94°C for 3 min; 26–32 cycles of 94°C for 20 s, 56–62°C (depending on the primer sets) for 25 s, and 72°C for 30 s, and a final extension step of 72°C for 5 min. Eight nonredundant gene sets had intrachromosomal duplications, of which five were distributed to the homoeologous group 6 chromosomes. Columbus, OH 43210 | Columbus, Ohio 43210. investigated the transcriptome in wheat caryopsis development using data generated by SAGE [16]. The ESTs used in this study were produced with 67 cDNA libraries prepared using inflorescences (spike at flowering or before flowering, anther, pistil, ovary, palea, and lemma), roots, stems, leaves (including seedlings and crown tissues), and seeds (matured or immature embryos) from normally grown seedlings or plants and represented 434,658 cloning events (Table S1). Cheng et al. Spike of spikelets Panicle of spikelets Spike Receme of spikes Answer : A Related Video. The spikelet is a short branch, bearing florets; a spikelet consists of two glumes … ET signaling is involved in multiple aspects of floral organ development, for instance, nectar secretion, accumulation of stigmatic exudate, and development of the self-incompatible response [72], floral organ senescing [73], pollen thermotolerance [74], and timing of anther dehiscence [71]. IDG006 encodes a galactosyltransferase, which is implicated in the accumulation control of glycosylated flavonols in pollen [57]. Inflorescence of Wheat is . Genes were functionally annotated through homologous search of the NCBI nonredundant (Nr) protein, KEGG [37] (http://www.kegg.jp/blastkoala), and Pfam [38] (http://pfam.xfam.org) databases. However, information about its link to the plastidial fatty alcohol pathway is still lacking. The three MADS-box genes we identified, one for E-class MADS proteins and two for B-class MADS proteins, differed in their expression profiles (Figure 1), even though both IDG001 and IDG021 were mainly expressed in stamen, suggesting they act in concert in determining the anther and pistil identity. Its mutation led to failure in pollen production and pollen wall formation [88]. Pathways emerging from the lipid metabolism-related genes included those for alkane and fatty alcohol production and glycerophospholipid metabolism. The inflorescence architecture of grass crops affects the number of kernels and final grain yield. Moreover, gene identity determination according to short sequence fragments could be problematic due to functional diversification of the homoeologous genes in polyploidy species. A gene was considered to be differentially expressed when the difference reached significance at . Inflorescence represents the highly specialized plant tissue producing the grains. RT-PCR reactions were independently repeated three times or more to ensure reproducibility. Inflorescence of Wheat is . The Arabidopsis DGAT1 contributes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis and its function loss causes critical defects in normal pollen and embryo development [84]. A. Dobritsa, Z. T. Lei, S. Nishikawa et al., “, M. G. Aarts, C. J. Keijzer, W. J. Stiekema, and A. Pereira, “Molecular characterization of the CER1 gene of arabidopsis involved in epicuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility,”, K. H. Jung, M. J. Han, D. Y. Lee et al., “, A. Skirycz, S. Jozefczuk, M. Stobiecki et al., “Transcription factor AtDOF4;2 affects phenylpropanoid metabolism in, A. M. Wang, Q. Xia, W. S. Xie, R. Datla, and G. Selvaraj, “The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development,”, Y. F. Guan, X. Y. Huang, J. Zhu, J. F. Gao, H. X. Zhang, and Z. N. Yang, “, L. P. Taylor and K. D. Miller, “The use of a photoactivatable kaempferol analogue to probe the role of flavonol 3-, T. Suzuki, J. O. Narciso, W. Zeng et al., “KNS4/UPEX1: a type II arabinogalactan, W. P. Vermeij, A. Alia, and C. Backendorf, “ROS quenching potential of the epidermal cornified cell envelope,”, A. Modifying morphometric inflorescence traits is important for increasing grain yield in wheat. A few identified genes were associated with pollen-stigma interactions. Valdiva et al. In addition, the galactosyltransferase-encoding IDG006, predominantly expressed in stamen, was related to pollen tube elongation [81]. Group G3 was the largest group, including 80 genes from 29 gene sets, characterized by a predominant expression in stamen and a negligible level of expression in the vegetative tissues. Wheat plants were further adapted for cultivation in different environments via flowering behaviour. Of the 67 cDNA libraries in line with the screening conditions, 29 libraries containing 140,092 sequences were from seed tissues; only three cDNA libraries including 17,732 sequences were from stem tissues (Table S1). A. Taylor, A. Horsch, A. Rzepczyk, C. A. Hasenkampf, and C. D. Riggs, “Maturation and secretion of a serine proteinase is associated with events of late microsporogenesis,”, G. J. vanEldik, W. H. Reijnen, R. K. Ruiter, M. M. A. vanHerpen, J. compared the RNA-seq tags of pistillody stamen and pistil from a pistillody wheat mutant and stamen from the wild-type control to identify differentially expressed genes [17]. In Arabidopsis, a type II β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase is required for pollen exine development [58]. NCERT RD Sharma Cengage KC Sinha. Pollination and pollen-stigma interactions, Nucleoside diphosphate kinase, EC 2.7.4.6, J. Kyozuka, “Grass inflorescence: basic structure and diversity,”, G. Theissen and H. Saedler, “Plant biology: floral quartets,”, D. B. Zhang and Z. Yuan, “Molecular control of grass inflorescence development,”, J. Y. Lee and D. H. Lee, “Use of serial analysis of gene expression technology to reveal changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis pollen undergoing cold stress,”, T. H. Lee, Y. K. Kim, T. T. Pham et al., “RiceArrayNet: a database for correlating gene expression from transcriptome profiling, and its application to the analysis of coexpressed genes in rice,”, H. P. Buermans and J. T. den Dunnen, “Next generation sequencing technology: advances and applications,”, J. Wheat is unusual among … For the processing of wheat grain, see cereal processing. C.O.R.N. A few genes, such as IDG035.2-5A, IDG035.1-4D, IDG035.2-4D, IDG042.1-6A, IDG042.3-6A, IDG042.4-6A, and IDG042.8-6A, were supported by ESTs but were matched to a negligible number of reads in the RNA-seq datasets. Phylogenic analysis of grasses revealed that rice is the close relative to wheat [3]. Pathway assignments were based on KEGG pathway mapping (http://www.kegg.jp/kegg/tool/map_pathway1.html) and keyword search of the plant metabolic pathway databases (http://www.plantcyc.org). University of Wisconsin Extension 14,147 views.    Â. The microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of anthers by Crismani et al. The identified genes were coded in numerical order with the prefix “IDG” (inflorescence development-related gene). Probably, these genes are expressed at a developmental inflorescence stage not included in the tissues for the RNA sequencing. These cytochrome P450 proteins might function in different subcellular locations, since IDG017, IDG019, and IDG030 have secretory signal peptides, while IDG036 and IDG041 do not. Depending on the weather and the variety, flowering usually occurs about 3-5 days after full head emergence (Feekes 10.5) – earlier under warmer conditions and delayed by up to 5 or more days after heading under cooler conditions. The pistillody in alloplasmic wheat was related to expression pattern alteration of class B genes [68]. The whole process of inflorescence development is under regulatory control. Multiple copies derived from duplication of an ancestral gene at the same chromosome were differentiated by a numerical suffix. With 99% homology as the cutoff, 187 genes matched significantly more ESTs from the inflorescence tissues than from any of the other four types of tissues (). Biology. For identification of the inflorescence development-related genes, these libraries were classified into five types according to the tissues used in library preparation, including seedling-stage leaf and stem, seedling to tillering-stage root, seed (from DPA3 to mature), and inflorescence (including premeiotic anthers, anthers at meiosis, pistil and ovary, immature inflorescence, lemma and palea, spike before flowering, and spike at flowering). Such a structure is different to that of rice, which forms secondary branches within its inflorescence. Park, and E. M. Lord, “Chemocyanin, a small basic protein from the lily stigma, induces pollen tube chemotropism,”, F. L. Deng, L. L. Tu, J. F. Tan, Y. Li, Y. C. Nie, and X. L. Zhang, “GbPDF1 is involved in cotton fiber initiation via the core cis-element HDZIP2ATATHB2,”, M. Potocky, M. A. Jones, R. Bezvoda, N. Smirnoff, and V. Zarsky, “Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase are involved in pollen tube growth,”, Q. H. Duan, D. Kita, E. A. Johnson et al., “Reactive oxygen species mediate pollen tube rupture to release sperm for fertilization in, L. F. Hu, W. Q. Liang, C. S. Yin et al., “Rice MADS3 regulates ROS homeostasis during late anther development,”, E. Hama, S. Takumi, Y. Ogihara, and K. Murai, “Pistillody is caused by alterations to the class-B MADS-box gene expression pattern in alloplasmic wheats,”, T. Zhao, Z. F. Ni, Y. Dai, Y. Y. Yao, X. L. Nie, and Q. X. Chromosome distribution of the identified wheat inflorescence development-related genes. The expression profiles of these genes were different, although all expressed in stamen. FPKM of a gene was estimated with reads matching to each gene with 100% identity, which were counted using featureCounts with both readExtension5 and readExtension3 set at 70 [34]. The first category included only two gene sets; both encode allergenic proteins. For technical support please contact the CFAES Helpdesk. Inflorescence is a particular arrangement of flowers on branch. A few genes in this subgroup were expressed more abundantly in the inflorescence (IDG011-1A) or in the stamen (IDG001-1A, IDG001-1D, and IDG045). The identification of this growth stage is very important for the management of Fusarium head blight (head scab) with fungicides. Figure S1: expression of a selected set of identified genes in different tissues, examined using qRT-PCR. They represent part of the transcriptome in a given tissue and/or at a given developmental stage. Anthesis (Flowering) in Wheat - Duration: 2:31. The tissues used included kernel 9th day postanthesis, root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis at the heading stage of common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai.”. Download Citation | Wheat Inflorescence Architecture | The development of the wheat inflorescence, or spike, determines the number, size and shape of grain produced. In the RNA-seq data comparison of pistillody stamen versus pistil, pistillody stamen versus stamen, and pistil versus stamen, Yang et al. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. Wheat Flowering Growth Stage Wheat continues to go through the heading and flowering growth stages across central and northern Ohio. Click on the links below for information on management practices that are recommended (or not recommended) at these growth stages: http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/pdf/0126.pdf, Link to video: https://youtu.be/ybZVW_YbhxYÂ. [17]. To identify putative genes predominantly expressed in wheat flowers, BLAST search was conducted using the PUT contig sequences as queries against the EST database consisting of the 67 cDNA libraries. b) onion. Bot., 35: 653-665. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. 400+ SHARES. Poaceae (also called Gramineae) is one of the largest families in the monocotyledonous flowering plants, including the major cereal crops, such as maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In these studies, the annotation of the identified transcripts was based on short tags or sequence reads which is impossible to ensure accuracy for species such as wheat that has a complex genome and does not have detailed sequence information so far. RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, CA) following the manufacturer’s protocol and quantified with an Ultrospec 2100 Pro spectrometer (Amersham Pharmacia, UK). A set of MADS transcription factors regulate floral organ identity specification [41, 68, 69]. Overall, they had a low expression level and were expressed more abundantly and specifically in majority of the cases, in the inflorescence as a whole. High-throughput methods, such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) [6], microarray technology [7], and next-generation sequencing [8] have enabled transcriptome studies in an unprecedented scale in many plant species, especially in those with full genome sequence information available. The flowers are borne in groups of two to six in structures known as spikelets, which later serve to house … The first group, G1, consisted of 42 genes from 10 gene sets. PEAMT and GPAT6 also affected pollen tube growth [46, 92]. We showed that the comparative transcriptomics approach was effective in identifying genes for reproductive development and found that lipid metabolism was particularly active in wheat anthers. In most of these cases, a low expression level of certain orthologous members was likely the cause of the discrepancy, for instance, some members of IDG035 and IDG042. C.O.R.N. In this study, we identified 59 nonredundant wheat gene sets that were differentially expressed in wheat inflorescence and encode proteins with diverse functions. The encoded products of IDG059, IDG032, and IDG037, probably involved in the production of fatty acyl-CoA reductase substrates, all have plastidic localization signals. In onion the inflorescence is. Chromosome-specific genomic DNA sequences corresponding to the retained contigs were obtained by retrieving the chromosome-assigned homologous scaffolds in the TGAC database [28] (http://www.tgac.ac.uk/grassroots-genomics) that showed 95% homology to the contig sequences. Lipid metabolism is important to pollen development because the distinct pollen wall structure is mainly made of fatty (lipid) substances produced in the tapetum of anthers [82]. 4. The MADS-box transcription factor proteins encoded by IDG001 and IDG021 have 87% similarity. A. Wilson, “Stamen specification and anther development in rice,”, D. B. Zhang, X. Luo, and L. Zhu, “Cytological analysis and genetic control of rice anther development,”, D. S. Zhang, W. Q. Liang, C. S. Yin, J. Zong, F. W. Gu, and D. B. Zhang, “, A. Bernard, F. Domergue, S. Pascal et al., “Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that, V. F. Souza, M. S. Pagliarini, C. B. Valle, N. C. Bione, M. U. Menon, and A. Based on statistical comparison of EST frequencies of individual genes in EST pools representing different tissues and verification with RT-PCR and RNA-seq data, 170 genes of 59 gene sets predominantly expressed in the inflorescence were obtained. RNA-data sets used in the analysis included the developmental time course series in five tissues (spike or inflorescence, root, leaf, grain, and stem) each with three different developmental stages. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are single-pass sequence reads by sequencing cDNA libraries and usually have >400-base read length. A. Baker, I. The IDG009-encoded phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) is the committing enzyme for choline biosynthesis. pistil and stamen by Yang et al. Transcriptomes reflect the complete set of RNA transcripts expressed by the genome under developmentally or physiologically distinct states; therefore, its comparison allows identification of genes under common regulation. It was noted, in the EST analysis, that some genes were solely expressed in spikes at or before anthesis, some were solely in stamen or in pistil, apart from those expressed more abundantly in spikes than in other tissues. The number of ESTs in each library ranged from 1000 to more than 10,000. On one hand, this could be attributed to the fact that much more ESTs from libraries made with anthers were used in the analysis, which had limitation of development stage and tissue-type coverage; on the other hand, it was probably due to the specific structure of pollen grains whose formation requires expression of a specific set of genes or gene network that made the related genes easily recognized through the differential analysis. CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. Therefore, the known regulatory mechanism of the inflorescence architecture in rice may inform related studies in wheat. They were all predominantly or specifically expressed in stamen. The fifth category, the “other” in Table 2, had only four annotated gene sets. Libraries subjected to enrichment or normalization treatment and those with less than 1000 ESTs were not included in the expression profiling analysis. The identified genes, most of which were predominantly expressed in anthers, encode proteins involved in wheat floral identity determination, anther and pollen development, pollen-pistil interaction, and others. Spikelets - It is a compact spike having a few flowers born on axis called rachilla and surrounded by two scales called glumes. Flowering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is highly sensitive to heat stress.Eleven spring wheat genotypes were exposed to heat stress (34/16°C, day/night temperature) during flowering to investigate the impact on time of day of flowering, seed set, grain yield, and … To validate the expression patterns of these genes, we tested the significance of expression difference and estimated the expression specificity (RES) of inflorescence (including the stages of Z32, Z39, and Z65), stamen, and pistil relative to the individual vegetative tissues (including kernel) using the RNA-seq data. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. A. IDG011-1A was the only exception, which was predominantly expressed in the inflorescence as a whole in spite of a significantly higher expression in the stamen and pistil relative to the vegetative tissues. Generally speaking, the tissue expression profiles between orthologous genes inferred based on the EST data were similar to those from the RNA-seq analysis. This group was basically characterized by expression in one or more of the vegetative tissues and an even higher level of expression in the stamen and/or pistil. The identification of genes related to JA, ET, and GA signaling added support for the important roles of JA, ET, and GA signaling cross-talks playing in stamen development [70, 71]. d) fig. In bread wheat (T. aestivum L.), an allohexaploid species (2n = 42) with three closely related subgenomes, that is, A, B, and D [14], large-scale transcriptomic investigations have been conducted in some tissue types. Of the 59 nonredundant gene sets, 13 had inflorescence development-related homologs in only two of three subgenomes, eight were solely identified in a single subgenome. In this type of inflorescence, the peduncle never ends in a flower, hut it continues to grow indefinitely and bears flowers laterally in acropetal succession i.e., the younger flowers develop towards growing end while the older flowers grow at the base. This has led to the discovery of a number of genes involved in flower development. In this study, we show that wheat MADS-box genes VRN1 , FUL2 and FUL3 play critical and redundant roles in spikelet and spike development, and also affect flowering time and plant height. The stages of inflorescence included Z32, two nodes stage; Z39, meiosis; Z65, anthesis of C.S. IDG028 codes for a protodermal factor 1-like protein mainly in the pistil. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. The RT-PCR primers used in the present study were designed with MacVector 11 (MacVector, NC) and are listed in Table S2. Inflorescences of this family are characterized by their panicle or spike shapes [1], complex branches, and unique spikelets, as well as inconspicuous and anemophilous flowers without obvious petals and sepals [2, 3]. After trimmed adapters and removing vectors and low quality reads with AdapterRemoval in a setting of quality base = 33 [32], the RNA-seq reads were mapped to the sequence database consisting of genomic DNA sequences of each identified candidate gene using HISAT2 [33]. Text Solution. Spikelets are systematically arranged and are distributed along the central zig-zag axix, which known as 'rachis'. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. To identify genes and gene network underlying inflorescence morphology and fertility of bread wheat, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different tissues were analyzed using a comparative transcriptomics approach. Ann. The second category included 11 gene sets, most of which belonged to the G2 expression type. Great progress has been made in genetic analysis of rice inflorescence development in the past decades. This research provides a strong foundation to improve yield potential by fine‐tuning the photoperiod‐dependent control of inflorescence development. Inflorescence represents the highly specialized plant tissue producing the grains. Able, and S. Kapoor, “Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice,”, N. Rutley and D. Twell, “A decade of pollen transcriptomics,”, P. Chaturvedi, T. Ischebeck, V. Egelhofer, I. Lichtscheidl, and W. 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