When water availability is limited during the early growing season, early season drought stress disturbs or blocks maize ear development, which negatively impacts yield. [paper]. Maize inflorescence provides a useful model to study the genetic and molecular control of meristems. Beginning with 4.7 percent oil, after 50 generations of selection, the high-oil strain has 15.36 percent and the low-oil strain has 1.01 percent of oil. Added an option to view RPKM values in log2 scale. Analysis of inflorescence organogenesis in eastern gamagrass, Tripsacum dactyloides (Poaceae): the wild type and the gynomonoecious gsf1 mutant. Photo about Female inflorescence of maize with silk, Sweet corn in the field. Many classical maize mutants were described last century, providing important insights into the mechanism of developmental control. Sign up with Google. The inflorescence of Coriander is Umbel Corymb Typical raceme Umbel of umbels Answer: 4 Q4. 2014 Mar;24(3):431-43. doi: 10.1101/gr.166397.113. Orr AR, Kaparthi R, Dewald CL, Sundberg MD. Unlike its ancestor teosinte, which is induced to flower by short days, maize undergoes transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase after producing a fixed number of leaves (Irish and Nelson, 1988). Recovered inbred lines from backcrosses to the high strains have resulted in good-yielding hybrids that produce more protein or oil per acre than standard hybrids. Maize (Zea mays L.) ear inflorescence architecture is directly relevant to grain yield components, and tassel architecture is relevant to hybrid seed production. The development of maize inflorescence undergoes two periods: the elaboration of the inflorescence and the formation of flowers. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. 5) Each of the morphological characteristics found in the maize inflorescences, except one, is present in other grasses, but the collection of morphological characteristics found in the ear and tassel is unique. Eveland AL, Goldshmidt A, Pautler M, Morohashi K, Liseron-Monfils C, Lewis MW, Kumari S, Hiraga S, Yang F, Unger-Wallace E, Olson A, Hake S, Vollbrecht E, Grotewold E, Ware D, Jackson D. Additional details on each page with added tools. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The genetic processes that control tassel and ear development also underlie construction of inflorescence architecture across the grasses, including other grain and cereal crops that help feed the world. 2015 Jan;27(1):104-20. doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.132506. Molecular and physiological approaches to maize improvement for drought tolerance. Arrangement of flowers on the floral axis is Inflorescence Phyllotaxy Placentation Corymb Answer: 1 Q2. Author maxim1717. However, most of these genes have not been associated with natural variation in inflorescence architecture, despite the high heritability of these traits in large association panels [ 70 ]. 2) The mature tassel is a terminal, staminate inflorescence consisting of a symmetrical, many-rowed central axis and asymmetrical, two-ranked lateral … Genome Res. Among grasses, inflorescence architecture is diverse, yet characterized by a unique morphology, where flowers are borne on specialized short branches called spikelets (Kellogg 2007; Thompson and Hake 2009). Maize (Zea mays L.) is a monoecious plant, which inflorescence morphogenesis involves complicated molecular regulatory mechanisms. Careful phenotypic and genetic studies of mutants that perturb meristem initiation, size, determinacy and identity or pathways of organogenesis such as … Organogenesis in plants is controlled by meristems. The lateral ear-producing branch (or branches) is so placed on the plant that there are many leaves above and below it. Image of closeup, food, bright - 105845084 NSF Natural Variation and Drought Responses in Developing Maize Inflorescences. Auxin signaling modules regulate maize inflorescence architecture. 1) The development of the maize plant, from germination to the maturation of the seed, is divided intothe vegetative, transitional, reproductive, and seedstages. Thus, understanding the architecture of the maize ear is of especially broad relevance for agricultural research. 2) The mature tassel is a terminal, staminate inflorescence consisting of a symmetrical, many-rowed central axis and asymmetrical, two-ranked lateral branches. The most important known regulator of the transition to reproductive stage in maize is indeterminate1 (id1). The ear is large in diameter and has seeds that are many times larger than those of other cereals. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials. The maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, produce more grain than any other crop. The average seed yield per ear is less in multiple-eared types than single-eared types growing under similar conditions. EFSA GMO Panel Working Group on Animal Feeding Trials. Bolduc N, Yilmaz A, Mejia-Guerra MK, Morohashi K, O'Connor D, Grotewold E, Hake S. 1) The development of the maize plant, from germination to the maturation of the seed, is divided intothe vegetative, transitional, reproductive, and seedstages. Plant Cell. 2013). 2008 Mar;46 Suppl 1:S2-70. ID1 functions non-autonomously to signal to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) for the transition to a reproductive stage. The ears are fasciated in line at the tip with additional and … [paper], Unraveling the KNOTTED1 regulatory network in maize meristems. The protein content was 10.92 percent at the beginning of the selection and reached 19.45 percent in the high-protein strain and 4.91 percent in the low-protein strain after 50 generations of selection. Paired spikelets, one terminal (pedicellate) and the other lateral (sessile), each containing two functional staminate flowers, are borne on the central axis and the lateral branches. Epub 2008 Feb 13. Maize is a monoecious plant with an apical male inflorescence, the tassel, and an axillary female inflorescence, the ear (Figure 1). 4) The mature ear and tassel appear to be different kinds of inflorescences, but if they are examined at the earliest stages in their development they will be found to be basically alike. Plant Reprod. By clicking on Sign up, you agree to Depositphotos Membership Agreement * Corn is blooming,close-up of the tops of the plants — Photo by maxim1717. It is a type of racemose inflorescence. Genes Dev. FASCIATED EAR4 encodes a bZIP transcription factor that regulates shoot meristem size in maize. Branching is restricted to a few lateral, pistillate branches in which vegetative development is suppressed. Although many related genes have been cloned, our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying maize inflorescence development remains limited. UNBRANCHED3 Expression and Inflorescence Development is Mediated by UNBRANCHED2 and the Distal Enhancer, KRN4, in Maize Author summary With the completion of increasing numbers of plant genome sequences and continuous accumulation of multiomics data, numerous regulatory elements are annotated in those intergenic regions containing open chromatin. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taino: mahiz), also known as corn (American English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. M… The composition of the maize kernel is 83 percent carbohydrate, 10 to 11 precent protein, and 4.3 percent oil. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 2012 Aug 1;26(15):1685-90. doi: 10.1101/gad.193433.112. 9) Several factors contribute to the superiority of maize over other cereals as a seed producer. Maize (Zea mays). Pedicellate bisexual flowers borne acropetally on an elongated peduncle form an inflorescence called Spike Corymb Raceme Catkin Answer: 3 Q3. Maize (Zea mays L.)is widely grown across the globe and constitutes the world’s largest food crop, exceeding rice, wheat and other cereals in terms of importance since 2012. One morphological characteristic not found in other grasses but found in the maize ear is the presence of a terminal, fertile, and aborted, lateral flower in each of the paired spikelets. Depositphotos. Pautler M, Eveland AL, LaRue T, Yang F, Weeks R, Lunde C, Je BI, Meeley R, Komatsu M, Vollbrecht E, Sakai H, Jackson D. The maize plant is large and, concomitant with its size, it has a large leaf surface, large stem, large root system, and an extensive vascular system. 7) The amount of seed produced per ear is determined by the number of rows of kernels and the number of kernels per row. HHS Maize (/ m eɪ z / MAYZ; Zea mays subsp.  |  The spadix is a spike with the fleshy axis and having both male and female flowers. In maize, several core regulatory factors that control inflorescence patterning have been identified through classical mutagenesis studies. The maize tassel and ear are complex structures that arise from a shared program of development involving a number of meristem identities and fates, yet emerge as distinct inflorescences that bear exclusively male and female flowers, respectively. NLM 3) In contrast with the tassel, the ear is a pistillate inflorescence produced on a lateral branch. The maize inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, produce more grain than any other crop. Genetics of dominant gibberellin-insensitive dwarfism in maize. Examples are palm and monocots (maize). The objectives of this study were to (1) determine heritabilities and correlations of a comprehensive set of tassel and ear inflorescence architecture traits in a set of (Illinois Low ProteinxB73) B73 S1 families, (2) identify chromosomal … Sign up with E-mail. Epub 2015 Jan 23. By in situ hybridizations and yeast-2-hybrid screens, I showed that many maize activating AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) interact with both BIF1 and BIF4 and could potentially play a role in regulating maize inflorescence development. All the afore-mentioned characteristics, many of which are not present in other grasses, contribute to making the maize plant a superior seed producer. To download this image, create an account . Image of cornfield, sweet, agricultural - 96310655 The ear consists of a symmetrical, many-rowed axis on which are paired spikelets, each containing two flowers. The ear and tassel differentiate and develop in the reproductive stage. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Photo about Close on leaf and inflorescence of maize in a field. It is surrounded by large colored bracts called spathe. The differences in the appearance of the two inflorescences at maturity are the result of differences in the differentiating and development of their parts. USA.gov. Epub 2017 Nov 4. Here, we identified a maize semi-dominant mutant Silky3 (Si3), which display pleiotropic defects during the … Functional elements of regulatory DNA revealed through profiles of chromatin accessibility can be harnessed for fine-tuning gene expression to optimal phenotypes in specific environments. There are two pistillate flowers in each spikelet of the ear, but only the terminal flower is functional, while the lateral flower aborts. Zea mays. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. 2012; Ishii et al. Result Here, we investigate the non-coding regulatory space in the maize (Zea mays) genome during early reproductive development of pollen- and grain-bearing inflorescences.

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