Many medieval Hausa manuscripts, similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently and some of them even describe constellations and calendars. Its use is often in a situation of digraphia, with Ajami used for specific purposes, such as for local herbal preparations in the Jula language. It has come to be applied to documents written in a variety of languages, with each language using a modified Arabic script. context-based shaping; It uses high and low tone. West Africans cultivated this type of literacy, called Ajami (from ‘Ajamiyy ‘stranger’ in Arabic) from the 13th century onward. Sources: Wikipedia, and Google Translate. Below are examples of two styles of Hausa written in ajami, with a transcription in Romanized orthography. ; Tarihi da Ma'anar Kalmar daga VOA Hausa … (Warren-Rothlinaww lists a handful of other, less commonly attested shapes, but they are not listed here.). They depend on an initial base consonant with a 3-dot diacritic, which may or may not be followed by و [U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW] or ی [U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH]. There is no official standard for how to write African languages in ajami, and there has been a good deal of variation over the history of the writing.dbs In addition, dialects of Hausa have different phonemic repertoires, which are reflected in their writing. This page gathers together basic information about the Arabic script and its use for the Hausa language. Many medieval Hausa manuscripts, similar to the Timbuktu Manuscripts written in the Ajami script, have been discovered recently and some of them even describe constellations and calendars.[2]. Warren-Rothlinaww says the following about these characters. Modern Arabic-script text makes use of a relatively large set of invisible formatting characters, especially in plain text, many of which are used to manage text direction. One base character was encoded in Unicode 4.1: ݣ [U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], used for combinations with the sound k. Unicode code points for the other two were encoded in Unicode v13. The Hausa language is a tonal language. A lawyer has asked a court in Nigeria's commercial city of Lagos to compel the country's central bank to remove the Arabic script which appears on most naira banknotes. The growth of Hausa ʿAjamī was accelerated by the reform movement of Uthman dan Fodio (1754-1817) and the Sokoto Caliphate, which dominated the Northern Nigerian region through the 19 th century, and which is often equated with Hausaland itself. Looking at the samples in the Unicode proposallpp, there seem to be two different forms for each. Unlike Semitic languages, where words are built on letter patterns, it can be very difficult to read Hausa text without the full vowel information. The Warsh orthography uses ࢻ [U+08BB ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN FEH] for this sound, and the Hafs uses ف [U+0641 ARABIC LETTER FEH] . ىٰٜـ [U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW]. Rather than provide characters with triple dots above and others with triple dots below, Unicode is standardising on above. Hausa has 3 syllable types: CV, CVV, and CVC, where VV can be a long vowel or a diphthong.bc The long vs. short vowel distinction is phonemically important, however when a syllable with a long vowel acquires and final consonant, the vowel is shortened. Hausa is normally written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. w The style of writing in this example follows the con… The following tables show how the above vowel sounds map to common characters or sequences of characters in vowelled text. Around 1907 CAH dan Sidi, the ruler of Zaria who was Sarkin Zazzau from 1903 to 1920 and was later deposed by the British, was taught Hausa in Roman script. Text is normally written horizontally, right to left, however numbers and non-Arabic script text run left to right. Adamu, M. 1978. There are also some confusable characters. The following maps the above sounds to graphemes. They include the following: The Arabic script is an abjad. Bambance rubutu tsakanin na allo da na boko. or Fulani (from Hausa). list of characters, with links to more details.Change size:   48px, رَایُوَا بَبَّنْ رَبُو نَا | غُنْ مَسَاٻِى دُونْ شِدَیْنَا | تَرْسَشِنْ أیْكِى نَ ٻَرْنَا | فَیْ دَ ٻُویٜ سِڟَیْدَ سُنَّا | شِبِ أللَّهْ بَادَكَنْغَرَا بَا, For information about the script in general, see the Arabic overview.u. Where i don't have other information, these 'initial' forms are shown using AIN in the table. Normally written using ز [U+0632 ARABIC LETTER ZAIN], however there are 2 'alternate' letters, ذ [U+0630 ARABIC LETTER THAL], and ظ [U+0638 ARABIC LETTER ZAH]. The term Ajami (Arabic: عجمي‎ ʿaǧamī), or Ajamiyya (Arabic: عجمية‎ ʿaǧamiyyah), which comes from the Arabic root for foreign or stranger, has been applied to Arabic alphabets used for writing African languages, especially those of Hausa and Swahili, although many other African languages were written using the script, among them Yoruba. EX (exclamation mark/interrogation) behave like closing characters, except in relation to postfix (PO) and non-starter characters (NS). The Hausa people used the Ajami script to write in Hausa language — hence the confusion that it is ‘Arabic’. The set of characters needed to represent the Hausa vowels is the following. For more details, see the Arabic overview. The written Hausa uses two different scripts: Ajami script used since the 17th century and Boko script used since the 19th century. These are preceded by an asterisk in the table. Malcolm Omirhobo is a Nigerian Lawyer and Human Rights activist who wrote a petition demanding that the 'Arabic' inscription be removed from the naira notes. They are ࣃ [U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] for ɡʷ/ɡʲ and ࣄ [U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]for ƙʷ/ƙʲ. Su dai yan-adam, ana haifuwarsu ne duka yantattu, kuma kowannensu na da mutunci da hakkoki daidai da na kowa. Hausa can be written in the Latin script, but also (less commonly) using the Arabic ajami script. There is a good deal of variation in the orthography for Hausa ajami, and no official standardisation. However, since Hausa ajami normally shows all the vowel diacritics, it actually functions as an alphabet. This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 13:36. Writing Systems in Hausa. Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. The final part of the book is the Hausa original in ajami (pp. script, followed by Fulfulde, Hausa, Wolof, and Yoruba (Hunwick 2006, 5). ; It should be borne in mind that while this page adopts a particular set of characters based on the Warsh variants as most representative of the orthography, and describes alternative characters under the label of 'infrequent', this is not necessarily representative of the orthography used in certain regions or contexts, especially outside the area around northern Nigeria. IS (infix numeric separators) usually occurs inside a numerical expression and may not be separated from the numeric characters that follow, unless a space character intervenes. <> Hausa or another language other than Arabic written in Arabic script. Ajami is a modified Arabic script used for writing Hausa, just as the Roman alphabet is used for English, explains Mustapha Kurfi, an Ajami scholar. The following list describes some distinctive characteristics of the Hausa ajami orthography. Unlike Standard Arabic, ajami tends to add all vowel diacritics to text. فَیْ fay͓.). In the written form, tons are represented by grave and acute accents. Omniglot shows the following for eː: ـٰٕ/ىٰٕ, ◌ٜـىٰ [U+065C ARABIC VOWEL SIGN DOT BELOW + U+0649 ARABIC LETTER ALEF MAKSURA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF], ◌‍ُو [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW] (same as uː), ◌‍ُواْ [U+064F ARABIC DAMMA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN]. Hausa also has more vowel sounds than Arabic, so some additional conventions are necessary to cover those. Additional alternative shapes also occur, typically used for borrowed words, or because sounds are not differentiated in some regions. Minority and restricted uses of the Arabic alphabet: the aljamiado phenomenon. ݣ [U+0763 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], ࣃ [U+08C3 ARABIC LETTER GHAIN WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE], ࣄ [U+08C4 ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN QAF WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE]. Solken's Collection by Stanislaw Pilaszewicz Historical poetry in Hausa in Roman script covering many topics and regions with each section followed by English translation (pp. His daughter, This section brings together information about the following topics: Usman ɗan Fodiyo (1754-1817), who established the Sokoto Caliphate in Northern Nigeria (1804-1903), effectively used Hausa Ajami to make the Sokoto jihād a mass movement (Bobboyi 2008, 123-30). فَیْ fay͓. The Arabic script uses a large number of Unicode characters that affect the way that other characters are rendered. They include the following. ◌َـوْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], eg. Hausa has been written with a modified Arabic script since at least the 18 th century. See clusters. Hausa has also been written in ajami since at least the early 17th century.whl, There is no standard system of using ajami for Hausa, and different writers may use letters with different values.whl. In a non-Kano font, the difference is in the shape of the final position glyph, ـك vs. ـک, respectively. See the table to the right for a brief overview of features for Hausa using the Arabic script. In some cases the triple dot (known as wagaf) may be written by some below the base and by others above the base, but Unicode is standardising on glyphs that show it above. Unlike Standard Arabic, all short vowel diacritics are usually written in Hausa ajami. Hausa has a literary tradition extending back several centuries before contact with Western culture. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Hausa language was written in an Arabic script called ajami. Hausa Ajami Literature and Script 91 period were produced at the request of the Europeans, there was at least one case of reaction to their domination. Hausa uses two principal types of writing: Ḥafṣ orthography uses characters that look and behave more like Standard Arabic, whereas the Warš orthography changes the shape of some letters, and drops the dots associated with others in certain positions. Another is that the dots appear on the other side of the base in some characters from the side they would appear in the Hafs orthography. 1979. Three consonant sounds in syllable initial position can be followed by ʷ or ʲ. Mostly these adaptations follow the North African, magrebi approach. This means that in normal use the script represents only consonant and long vowel sounds. The default is to treat them as both opening and closing. Hausa was first written in an Arabic script known as Ajami. The West African Hausa is an example of a language written using Ajami, especially during the pre-colonial period when Qur'anic schools taught Muslim children Arabic and by extension, Ajami. Siffa tare da "rubutu", rubutun ajami. grids & tables; حَوْسَا or هَوْسَا.aww. Geminated consonants are indicated using ّ [U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA], eg. writing styles; Bondarevdbs says that it is written as پ [U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH] in modern text. There is another orthography, that looks much closer to naskh, that is used with hand-written adaptations for the newspaper Al-Fijir, and is based on the Hafs orthography, but when writing in that orthography you need to use different code points from those used for the Kano style. Use of ajami tends to be restricted to Muslim contexts. هَوُسَ / Yaren Hausa (Hausa) A lokacin, harshen mutanen duniya ɗaya ne, maganarsu kuma ɗaya ce. etc.) The transcriptions show vowel length with a macron over the vowel and low tone with a grave accent (`). Not clear whether Hausa uses ٫ [U+066B ARABIC DECIMAL SEPARATOR] and ٬ [U+066C ARABIC THOUSANDS SEPARATOR]. iv-clix). general page layout & progression; Islamic Hausa poetry Examples Of Hausa Ajami Script by kaura5000: 12:41pm On Feb 08, 2016 ajami is a type of alphabets derived from arabic that was used by different ethnic groups before coming of europeans to africa.. eg hausa,mandinka,songhay,fula etc The Warsh form is ࢽ [U+08BD ARABIC LETTER AFRICAN NOON] and Hafs is ن [U+0646 ARABIC LETTER NOON]. Sa'ad da mutane suke ta yin ƙaura daga gabas, sai suka sami fili a ƙasar Shinar, suka zauna a can. Ajami scripts were also in wide use for the indigenous languages of the northern Caucasus (such as Avar, Lak, Dargi, Chechen, and Ingush), prior to the conversion of these alphabets to Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Sai suka ce wa juna, "Ku zo, mu yi tubula, mu gasa su sosai." See suppression. There is a good deal of variation in the orthography for Hausa ajami, and no official standardisation. AL (ordinary alphabetic and symbol characters) requires other characters to provide break opportunities; otherwise, unless tailored rules are applied, no line breaks are allowed between pairs of them. ك [U+0643 ARABIC LETTER KAF] and ک [U+06A9 ARABIC LETTER KEHEH] look the same in the Kano webfont used for this page, but represent different underlying characters. In previous articles like, "Systemic Foolery", I have given some… Characters used for the Hausa language have the following assignments related to line-break properties. Sometimes, پ [U+067E ARABIC LETTER PEH] is used as one of the 'alternative' shapes. This section is for any features that are specific to thisScript and that relate to the following topics: baselines, line height, etc. Vowel absence is usually marked (unlike Standard Arabic), including over the YEH or WAW that signal the final part of a diphthong. Warren-Rothlinaww indicates that this uses ۑ [U+06D1 ARABIC LETTER YEH WITH THREE DOTS BELOW] for the Warsh orthography, rather than the ؿ [U+063F ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH WITH THREE DOTS ABOVE] indicated by Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp. ◌َـوْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], eg. Many are more phonemic than phonetic, and there may be variations depending on the source of the transcription. The kano writing style is a common way of writing Hausa, especially in Northern Nigeria, in the ajami script, and like other East African writing it is based on Warsh (Warš) forms, which incorporate Maghribi characteristics. Many of those have no visible form of their own. For example, there is no break in “100.00” or “10,000”, nor in “12:59”.. QU (quotation) characters can be opening or closing, or even both, depending on usage. Click on the sounds to reveal locations in this document where they are mentioned. and it has nothing to do with religion. Text written in the Kano style will include glyphs for a number of African characters that may not be available in the average naskh font. See also the Character usage lookup page, and the Script Comparison Table. The use of Arabic script to transcribe other languages is technically called “Ajami”. lppuwa, أَ [U+0623 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH HAMZA ABOVE + U+064E ARABIC FATHA], ◌َـا [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF], ◌َـیْـ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN], ◌َـیْ [U+064E ARABIC FATHA + U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH + U+0652 ARABIC SUKUN]. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. The lettering states the note's currency value. I settled for the last of these, though not for any convincing reason. Observation: It appears to be very unusual for sounds other than a or i to appear at the start of a word. Most sources associate this sound with ٻ [U+067B ARABIC LETTER BEEH] for the Warsh orthography, but Evans & Warren-Rothlinlpp list that character as Hafs, and show ݑ [U+0751 ARABIC LETTER BEH WITH DOT BELOW AND THREE DOTS ABOVE] as the Warsh variant. Ajami script, that is, non-Arab language written in Arabic script, is also used in some other African countries, Nairametrics says. ّ [U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA] indicates gemination of a consonant. The Ajami writing on each naira note is for the benefit of the tens of millions of Hausa speakers, who can only read and write in that script, which is taught in schools across the north. In 1903, under the influence of the British, the Latin alphabet was added. He had argued that Nigeria is a secular nation, thus, an inscription that portrays the Islamic religion is unacceptable. So there is some variation as to which characters are mapped to which sounds, and the sets described here are a synthesis of sources describing modern usage. You can experiment with examples using the Hausa ajami character app. When Western colonizers adopted a Latin orthography for Hausa, Ajami went into decline and now is employed less frequently than the Latin standard orthography. Hausa has been written in ajami, since the early 15th century.There is no … References. Today, this representation of the language has been superseded for most purposes by the Roman script. … Phones in a lighter colour are non-native or allophones. In the following table, some vowels are shown with the Arabic letter for t as an example. بَبَّنْ.

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