The recipient of many awards, grants, and honorary degrees, Meltzoff sits on the editorial board of eight academic journals and the advisory board or board of trustees of four foundations. Patients suffering from BPD present with extremely volatile emotions and disturbed thinking, without crossing the line into full-blown schizophrenia—-hence the notion that they occupy a borderline between neurosis and psychosis. In other work, Diener has found that subjective well-being has measurable positive effects on health and longevity. He is undoubtedly best known as the person primarily responsible for the cognitive approach to therapy for depression, which in its modern form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has become the gold standard for the clinical treatment of depression, with a much higher success rate than other types of psychotherapy. Aronson’s is one of the most famous names in the discipline of social psychology, due in no small part to his best-selling survey of the entire field, entitled The Social Animal, first published in 1972. Nadel was born in New York City in 1942. The functional roles of the simpler operations can then be more easily studied individually using the techniques already mentioned. Different Psychologist And Their Theories And Famous Political Psychologists Best He received his bachelor’s degree magna cum laude from Amherst College, and his Ph.D. in clinical psychology and personality development from Harvard University. He received his bachelor’s degree in 1951 from Stanford University, and his Ph.D. in psychology in 1955 from Yale University. Instead, the purpose of this list is to offer a glimpse into some of the major theoretical outlooks that have influenced not only psychology but also the larger culture. In 1949, he emigrated to Canada, where he obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in psychology at the University of Toronto. As the great economist John Maynard Keynes famously said: He might just as well have said psychologist. In 1940, on the eve of World War II, Rutter was sent to the US, where he attended the Moorestown Friends School in New Jersey. Mischel was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1930. In Gergen’s relational view of the self, for example, our sense of self is wholly dependent upon the scope for social action afforded us by our place in society. He also found that, while cognitive development is of course dependent upon many important factors in the child’s environment, it is nevertheless quite robust in the sense that early delays may be reliably compensated for later once the environment impediments to normal development are removed. In other work, Shepard has conducted experiments on the auditory system. He further argues that fundamentally happy people are able to tap into their capacity for flow on a regular basis. The recipient of innumerable grants, awards, fellowships, lectureships, and honorary degrees, in 2001 Linehan received the Distinguished Scientist Award bestowed by the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology, an affiliate of the American Psychological Association (APA). Loftus (née Fishman) was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1944. Geoffrey Miller, What Should We Be Worried About? This was a highly significant observation for at least two reasons: first, it provided a kind of empirical confirmation that Bayesian networks really do capture something important about scientific reasoning; and, second, it powerfully demonstrated that babies are already capable of employing far more sophisticated methods of discovery than one might have imagined absent such evidence. He eventually published an elegant theory employing simple Bayesian principles, which proved to be one of his most influential papers. Miller has argued that the human brain, whose rapid size increase he believes was due to intense sexual selection pressure, is a Fisherian runaway, and that therefore we should be very careful about the effects of our intelligence on our long-term survival. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Source = “gstatic” Sigmund Freud was an Australian neurologist who founded psychoanalysis. 13) Hans. [This text covers many of the classical topics on the subject.] Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (Viking, 1963). He suggested replacing Bowlby’s single-causal-factor model with a multivariate analysis of vulnerability factors. They are the founders of great psychological schools. Rosch is the author or co-author of many peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the co-author or co-editor of two books. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Psychology at University of California, Berkeley. He is the inventor of the Shepard tone, which is an auditory illusion somewhat analogous to the well-known visual illusions (such the Kanizsa triangle). He received his bachelor’s degree in 1956 from University College London, and his master’s degree in psychology in 1957 from Princeton University. Some of her other projects include philosophical reflection on the fact of embodiment for cognitive science, and critical approaches to understanding the history and current practice of psychology as a science. The PRG also developed innovative forms of physiological monitoring of subjects, known as ambulatory monitoring or ambulatory assessment, to assist in research on behavior in everyday situations. Kahneman received his bachelor’s degree in psychology and mathematics in 1954 from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. For example, a subject might be asked to determine whether 3-D figures projected onto a plane in different orientations are congruent with one another or are mirror images (entantiomorphs). He is currently Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Oregon, as well as a Member of the Institute of Neuroscience there. with our physical limitations in mind, so too ought we to design our social world of educational, financial, legal, and political institutions with our cognitive limitations in mind. The result was his first book, originally published in 1977, on the different types of meditative techniques that he found there. Linehan was initially drawn to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), with its emphasis on helping patients to re-frame their conflicts in a more realistic way to enable them to gain sufficient detachment to bring their emotions under better voluntary control (on CBT, see the entry for Aaron T. Beck, above). Here, she began by postulating two basic principles: first, the task of category systems is to provide maximum information with the least cognitive effort; second, the perceived world comes as structured information rather than as arbitrary or unpredictable attributes. Pointing to the drastic decline in all the metrics of young people’s skills and behavior during this period, he argues that parents, schools, and others who have consciously discarded the commonsense attitudes and practices that had prevailed for centuries, putting a much more permissive set of rules and structures in their place, are in large part responsible for this decline. She is currently an independent writer and lecturer. Test-Optional Universities Threaten SAT/ACT Credibility: Part I. Szokolszky was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1956. Szokolszky has also studied pathologies of the mental capacity for playing with make-believe objects, as in autism. Her findings are quite general and apply to hierarchical organizations of all sorts; for example, her work has elucidated ways in which physician-patient communication may influence clinical outcomes. For a politician, political psychology is important because it gives him insights into the behaviour pattern of voters. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). On the other hand, we moderns hardly believe in the soul that all those writers took for granted anymore. He is without a doubt best known for his theory of multiple intelligences—-the highly influential idea that the sort of intelligence measured by standardized IQ tests is only one among a variety of types of intelligence deployed by human beings in their interactions with the world around them (especially the social world). Ariely, who is the founder of a number of private for-profit ventures, has become well known beyond the academic world for his best-selling popular books (see below), his TED talks, and his widely read Wall Street Journal advice column. Tulving’s family fled Estonia just ahead of the Red Army in 1940, settling briefly in Germany where Tulving completed his secondary education. He is currently Emeritus Professor in the Department of Psychology of the University of Toronto, as well as Tanenbaum Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience at the Rotman Research Institute of the Baycrest Health Sciences Centre in Toronto and Clark Way Distinguished Visiting Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience at Washington University in St. Louis. Barrett (née Feldman) was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in 1963. Sexual selection, in a nutshell, is the idea that the sexes may sometimes evolve independently of each other through adaptations geared specifically to the mating preferences of the opposite sex. In particular, Gilbert’s empirical studies reliably show that the acquisition of wealth beyond a certain minimum makes no additional contribution to happiness. Carl Rogers placed emphasis on human potential, which had an enormous influence on both psychology and education. Note the studied equivocation in this formulation regarding the ontological status of the perceived world structure (one might well wonder what the point of such a close mapping might be, if perceived world structure did not in turn map closely onto real world structure). Bounded rationality is the idea that, not only are human actors constrained by emotional factors such as irrational aversions and prejudices, they are simply not very good at reasoning correctly about certain kinds of situations (especially ones involving probabilities). One of his major contributions has involved modeling prediction in relation to audition. Co-morbidities of BPD include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, self-harm, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation. Csikszentmihályi was born in 1934 in Fiume (now Rijeka) in what was then the Kingdom of Italy and is now the Republic of Croatia. Political psychologists may conduct research with voters, such as determining the root of political beliefs and how they relate to social, cultural, economic, religious, and other sociocultural factors. In another example, Ekman has done extensive work on the differences between spontaneous (genuine) and simulated (deceptive) emotions which may be detected in facial expressions. She received her bachelor’s degree in 1979 from Radcliffe College, and her Ph.D. in 1985 from Harvard University. She is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, with an affiliate appointment in the Philosophy Department. By explaining her findings regarding the ease with which false memories can be implanted in people’s minds — and children’s most of all — by authority figures, Loftus played a key role in securing justice for those wrongfully accused in such cases, and in bringing this troubling episode of mass hysteria to a close. The wide-ranging 2009 book in which Gopnik reported these and many other findings to a popular audience, The Philosophical Baby, was a runaway bestseller. Discover schools with the programs and courses you’re interested in, and start learning today. Loftus’s work has focused on human memory. Though Bandura’s work has been primarily oriented toward social psychology, he has had no hesitation in borrowing ideas from other fields—-and repaying ideas to them with interest. This classification can be summarized by five positive character traits, or virtues, that make for an optimistic and resilient personality (known collectively by the acronym, PERMA), namely: Seligman is the author or co-author of around 280 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and the author, co-author, or editor of some 20 books. Ekman has published some 170 peer-reviewed journal articles or book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some 15 books. He received his bachelor’s degree in psychology in 1949 from the University of British Columbia, and his master’s degree in theoretical psychology in 1951 from the University of Iowa. Cognitive dissonance is the state of discomfort you feel when you hold two conflicting beliefs. Davidson is a close friend of the 14th Dalai Lama and himself meditates regularly. While Spelke supports the idea that many or most of our cognitive abilities have an innate, or biological, foundation, after long empirical study she has concluded that there is no evidence for any systematic biological difference between males and females with respect to any of the several cognitive capacities underlying general mathematical ability (numerical reasoning, spatial reasoning, logical reasoning, etc.). He has received numerous honorary degrees and has occupied visiting professorships at a multitude of universities all around the world. Gergen has published more than 500 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, as well as popular articles, op-eds pieces, and the like. Nadel has authored or co-authored more than 175 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, and is the author, co-author, or editor of some dozen books. Zimbardo’s research has focused on the way individual behavior is conditioned by structural social factors. This research was conducted mainly to throw light on how the brain functions in natural environments; however, mental rotation tasks have become a standard part of psychologists’ cognitive assessment toolkit (such as intelligence tests). Loftus and her work rocketed to fame in the early 1990s when she gave expert testimony in a series of court cases involving the phenomenon of so-called repressed memory. You may smoke even though you know it is bad for your health. Evolutionary psychologists attempt to explain widespread and deep-seated human behaviors in terms of selection pressure in the context of the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) — in our case, the African savannah in the Pleistocene era. The list comprises individuals in approximately equal numbers from each of the five following sub-disciplines: The overall list is in alphabetical order. Some individuals work for media outlets analyzing voter behavior, or work in research determi… An ego psychologist who studied with Anna Freud, Erikson expanded psychoanalytic theory by exploring development throughout life, including events of childhood, adulthood, and old age. He is the recipient of numerous grants, awards, and prizes, has held a number of prestigious board memberships and editorships in his field, and is a Fellow of both the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Psychology Society (APS). He then received his doctorate in 1991 and his Habilitation in 1996, both in psychology and both from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität. Time flies. Andrew N. Meltzoff and M. Keith Moore, Imitation of Facial and Manual Gestures by Human Neonates [PDF], Science, 1977, 198: 75—78. Political Psychology, 524 pp. This is largely because many of his writing remained inaccessible to the Western world until quite recently. (See also applied psychology; behaviourism; biological psychology; Tulving has made a number of other theoretical advances in the study of memory, as well. Her conclusions showed that it is easy to convince people that their memories are incorrect, and even to cause them to change what they claim to remember—-a phenomenon she dubbed the misinformation effect. She received her bachelor’s degree in psychology and philosophy in 1975 from McGill University, and her doctorate in experimental psychology in 1980 from Oxford University. Together, these two features constitute a way of observing one’s own emotions as they come and go, without acting on them. He is currently the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. Csikszentmihályi popularized this idea in his 1990 best-seller, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. A number of observers have pointed out that there is very little empirical support for the theory. Donna Wicher Psychologist And Famous Political Psychologists. He emigrated to the US in 1956, at the age of 22. Tomasello was born in Bartow, Florida, in 1950. She is currently Distinguished Professor of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine, where she also holds appointments as Professor of Cognitive Science and Professor of Law. Kagan began his career working on longitudinal studies designed to reveal whether early childhood experiences have lasting effects on the development of personality. 5. The master question that his lab raises and attempts to answer is the way in which affective states are generated in the brain, including pleasure, desire and appetite, emotion, and affective valence (the subjective scale from positive to negative value according to which most affective states present themselves to us). Highly informative resources to keep your education journey on track. Tomasello has been elected a fellow of the national academies of science of Germany, Hungary, and Sweden. Lev Vygotsky has only become one of the most famous psychologists in recent years. Political psychology theories supported by research seek to describe not only personality and attitudes, but the role of cognition and emotion in political attitudes and behaviour, political ideology and intergroup dynamics. In a nutshell, this means that males were better off (in Darwinian terms of contributing genes to future populations) if they chose mates on the basis of appearance as markers of health and fertility, whereas females were better off in the Darwinian sense if they chose mates on the basis of social status as a marker of their ability to supply resources to the female and her offspring. Pinker was also involved during the 1980s in a significant, if highly technical, dispute over connectionist models of mind and speech. Author Guidelines: Political Psychology Instructions for Contributors . Explore and learn more interesting facts and details about them through their biographies that include trivia, interesting facts, timeline and life history. After initially studying business and economics and working for a computer company for a time, she entered medical school at the University of Zurich. In recent years, Kagan has turned his attention to a series of problems he finds with the psychological profession itself, including: disregarding the difference in settings in which experimental studies are conducted; basing theories and practices on single measures, rather than complex, multi-dimensional measurements; defining mental illnesses on the basis of symptoms without regard for etiology; and treating disorders with drugs that are non-specific for the disorder. Psychoanalysis is the school of psychology that Freud is given credit for founding. Berridge was born in 1957. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In a nutshell, he attempts to identify the selective advantage of particular human social behavioral traits in the context of our environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA). The field comprises a spectrum which merges at one end with soft disciplines like ethnology, sociology, and the helping professions, and at the other end with hard disciplines like genetics, endocrinology, and neuroscience. He obtained his Ph.D. in psychology in 1962 from the University of Michigan. Her work has centered on ecological psychology as it relates to the cognitive development of children, especially the way in which Gibsonian affordance theory throws light on how the mental manipulation of make-believe objects in children’s play is possible, how this unique cognitive capacity develops, and the important role it plays in healthy adult cognitive performance. Simply put, affective forecasting is the calculation we all make all the time, consciously or subconsciously, when faced with any decision—-generally speaking, we choose the option or the course of action that we believe will lead to the greatest increase in our overall happiness. She is currently Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Faculty of Hautes Études Commerciales, or HEC (which is to say, the Business School), of the University of Lausanne. She received her bachelor’s degree with highest honors in mathematics and psychology in 1966 from the University of California, Los Angeles, and her master’s degree and her Ph.D., both in mathematical psychology, in 1967 and 1970, respectively, from Stanford University.
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