[4][17] Like other Cordyline species, C. australis can produce sports which have very attractive colouration, including pink stripes and leaves in various shades of green, yellow or red. Ki a Ngāti Porou te kōuka he kāuka engari hoki he whenua kei Waiapu ko te Ahikōuka te ingoa (RK 1994:41). However, when it is cooked the “Tuscany way,” it turns almost black. Sometimes these para were just a collection of trees, but they may also have been treated as a regular area to harvest the kauru. [34], The tree was well known to Māori before its scientific discovery. New Zealand’s Cabbage Tree, Tī Kōuka (Canterbury University Press, 2000) ... Māori brought the name with them from Polynesia. [7][69] The southern limit of kūmara (sweet potato) cultivation was at Banks Peninsula at 43°S, and south of there a culture developed around C. australis. [66] Rural Decline was the name proposed by botanists to refer to a decline in health of older trees in pasture and grazed shrubland, leading over many years to the loss of upper branches and eventual death. It is absent from much of Fiordland, probably because there is no suitable habitat, and is unknown on the subantarctic islands to the south of New Zealand, probably because it is too cold. 1. However, it is more probable that the name arose from it being moved around its native land as a domesticated plant. Young trees are killed by frost, and even old trees can be cut back. [21] manga: stream; tī: cabbage tree: Cabbage-tree stream: Mangatina: manga: stream; tina: exhausted: Exhausted at the stream: Mangatoetoe: manga: stream; toetoe: native grass: Toetoe stream: Mangatuna: manga: stream; tuna: eel: Eel stream: Mangawara : manga: stream; wara: to make an indistinct sound: Quiet stream: Mangaweka: manga: stream; weka: wood-hen: Weka stream: Mangawhata: manga: … They grow from a layer called the secondary thickening meristem. It usually grows up to 1 metre (3.3 feet) tall,[1] although rare examples of 2 metres tall have been reported. The same oils may also slow down the decay of fallen leaves, so that they build up a dense mat that prevents the seeds of other plants from germinating. The plant was well known to Māori, who cultivated it for its sugar-laden roots and stems before its discovery and naming by Europeans. [14] It was named Dracaena australis by Georg Forster who published it as entry 151 in his Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus of 1786. Kōmata (cabbage tree) Populations of C. australis were decimated in some parts of New Zealand because of Sudden Decline. The best thing about the cabbage tree is it’s edible. Along the coast to the far west, the trees are robust with broad, bluish leaves. In western Northland and Auckland, a form often called tītī grows. Put the ointment on the cut or sore twice a day, and bandage. The midrib is prominent abaxially, or at least proximally and the leaf margins are slightly recurved. The fertility of the soil is another factor—settlers in Canterbury used the presence of the species to situate their homesteads and gardens. [4][14] The fruit is a white berry 5 to 7 mm (3⁄16 to 9⁄32 in) in diameter[4] which is greedily eaten by birds. Although it was recorded by the early naturalists, botanists only rediscovered it in the 1990s, being grown by gardeners as the cultivar Cordyline 'Thomas Kirk'. Cabbage tree –> andira The bark of andira inermis, a leguminous tree of tropical America, used as an emetic, purgative, and anthelmintic. Young heart shoots from the growing tip were eaten raw or cooked in hangi ovens. They can infest young trees but seldom damage older trees, which lack the skirt of dead leaves where the parent moths like to hide. The Cabbage Palmetto is Florida's state tree. (P. Smith 1940). Milford Sound - named after Milford Haven, Wales. It is also known as the Broad-leaved cabbage tree, and in the Māori language as tōī. Known to Māori as tī kōuka, the tree was used as a source of food, particularly in the South Island, where it was cultivated in areas where other crops would not grow. Most of these trees will slowly die out because livestock eat the seedlings and damage the trunks and roots of adult trees. [62] If the leaves are left to decay, the soil underneath cabbage trees becomes a black humus that supports a rich array of amphipods, earthworms and millipedes. Tī Kōuka — the cabbage tree - Tī kōuka is strong, durable, and doesn’t shrink in water. [21], A study of seedlings grown from seed collected in 28 areas showed a north-south change in leaf shape and dimensions. What is Florida's state tree name? Seedlings often have leaves with red-brown pigmentation which disappears in older plants, and this coloration becomes increasingly common towards the south. Before it flowers, it has a slender unbranched stem. [15], In spring and early summer, sweetly perfumed flowers are produced in large, dense panicles (flower spikes) 60 to 100 cm (24 to 39 in) long, bearing well-spaced to somewhat crowded, almost sessile to sessile flowers and axes. Very vigorous when they are young, these trees seem well adapted to the very cold winters of the south. Cabbage Tree Botanical name: Cordyline australis Maori name: Ti kouka means ‘tongues of chattering women’ Habitat: They grow all over the country, but prefer wet, open areas like swamps and scrubland in the North and South Islands. Huhu grubs. No gun was allowed in the place. Download the ebook here. Word following mangō identifies the species (e.g. Rub them forwards and backwards over a wire in a fence to soften them. [19] Because it has evolved in response to the local climate, geology and other factors, C. australis varies in appearance from place to place. The plight of Cordyline australis in the Sudden Decline epidemic drew attention to another widespread threat to the tree in rural areas throughout New Zealand. On old trees, the leaves tend to be relatively broad. Absent from much of Fiordland, it was probably introduced by Māori to the Chatham Islands at 44° 00′S and to Stewart Island at 46° 50′S. [4][9][14][15], The long narrow leaves are sword-shaped, erect, dark to light green, 40 to 100 cm (16 to 39 in) long and 3 to 7 cm (1 to 3 in) wide at the base, with numerous parallel veins. [78], Cordyline australis is one of the most widely cultivated New Zealand native trees. Early settlers used the young leaves from the center of these heads as a substitute for cabbage. The liquid from boiled shoots was taken for other stomach pains. There are five native species, including īnanga, kōaro and kōkopu. There, several things were called totara, including the spiny-bodied fishes known as porcupinefish. [41], Older trees sometimes grow epicormic shoots directly from their trunks after storm or fire damage. The leaves radiate strongly, suggesting that tī manu is adapted to the cold winters of the upland central plateau. The most common epiphytes are ferns, astelias and orchids. "[61] As the native birds have vanished from much of New Zealand with the clearing of forests, it is now flocks of starlings which descend upon the fruit. In many Northland parks, cabbage trees from the central North Island were growing and flowering within metres of natural forms. australis. Although Sudden Decline often affects cabbage trees in farmland and open areas, trees in natural forest patches continue to do well. Māori were one of the few indigenous groups in the world that had no history of alcohol use – a title they share with they inuit of Canada and several Native american tribes. They grow all over the country, but prefer wet, open areas like swamps. Trees of the tī manu type are also found in northern Taranaki, the King Country and the Bay of Plenty lowlands. Maori used cabbage tree leaves for weaving into kits and other containers. At the same time, the bark on the trunk becomes loose and detaches easily. The trunk becomes misshapen or completely ring-barked for a metre above the ground. The wharanui type occurs in Wellington, Horowhenua and Whanganui, and extends with some modifications to the southern Taranaki coast. The gummy resin that oozes from the bark was mixed with bird fat and the oil of Tītoki and Kōhia … Ohe Hedyleptan Moth: Olaa peppered looper … [45] This form resembles that found in the far south of the South Island, suggesting that they are both adapted to cold conditions. [57] New Zealand bellbirds like to nest under the dead leaves or among the flower stalks, and paradise shelducks commonly build their nests in the base of an old cabbage tree standing in the middle of a field. The leaves and the rough bark provide excellent homes for insects such as caterpillars and moths, small beetles, fly larvae, wētā, snails and slugs. Cordyline australis grows up to 20 metres (66 feet) tall with a stout trunk 1.5 to 2 m (4 ft 11 in to 6 ft 7 in) in diameter. Aerial rhizomes can also be produced from the trunk if it sustains damage or has become hollow, and grow down into the soil to regenerate the plant. In New Zealand and overseas, hybrids with other Cordyline species feature prominently in the range of cultivars available. Put the ointment on the cut or sore twice a day, and bandage. Email This BlogThis! Known to Māori as tī kōuka, the tree was used as a source of food, particularly in the South Island, where it was cultivated in areas where other crops would not grow. [28], Large parties trimmed the cut stems, and left them to dry for days or weeks. [44], Generally a lowland species, it grows from sea level to about 1,000 metres (3,300 feet), reaching its upper limits on the volcanoes of the central North Island, where eruptions have created open spaces for it to exploit, and in the foothills of the Southern Alps in the South Island, where deforestation may have played a part in giving it room to grow. The curly golden leaves w [28] Europeans used the plant to make alcohol, and the often fearsome brews were relished by whalers and sealers. With its tall, straight trunk and dense, rounded heads, it is a characteristic feature of the New Zealand landscape. Other names refer to its uses—whether its fruit attracted birds (tī manu), or the leaves were particularly suitable for making ropes (tī whanake) and nets (tī kupenga). In the central North Island, it has evolved a much sturdier form (with the Māori name tī manu, meaning "with branches bearing broad, straight upright leaves"). [17] However the name probably predates the settlement of New Zealand — Georg Forster, writing in his Voyage round the World of 1777 about the events of Friday, April 23, 1773, refers on page 114 to the discovery of a related species in Fiordland as "not the true cabbage palm" and says "the central shoot, when quite tender, tastes something like an almond's kernel, with a little of the flavour of cabbage. The raukawa (Pseudopanax edgerleyi) evokes romantic love – it was used to make perfume for the East Coast ancestor Māhinaarangi’s meetings with her lover Tūrongo. [63], There are nine species of insect only found on C. australis, of which the best known is Epiphryne verriculata, the cabbage tree moth, which is perfectly adapted to hide on a dead leaf. I use the A Dictionary of Maori Plant Names by James Beever (1991, Auckland Botanical Society) as my guide to Māori names for plants.) Possums tend not to eat the leaves of the tree, but are very fond of eating the sugar-rich flowering stalks as they emerge. Any offspring produced might have been poorly adapted to local conditions. Often the growth layer dies and the injuries may lead to bacterial or fungal infections that spread into the branches until the canopy too begins to die. For a listing in order of Māori name, with species names for most, see the Flora of New Zealand list of vernacular names. Simpson reports that the names highlight the characteristics of the tree that were important to Māori. Pohutukawa is the Maori name for the Metrosideros species of tree (also known as the NZ Christmas tree). The genus name Cordyline derives from an Ancient Greek word for a club (kordyle), a reference to the enlarged underground stems or rhizomes,[4] and the species name pumilio is Latin for "dwarf". (noun) dwarf cabbage tree, pigmy cabbage tree, Cordyline pumilio - found in the northern half of the North Island in scrubby areas. In the 2000s rain capes were sometimes worn by waka (canoe) paddlers. [50] The flowers produce a sweet perfume which attracts large numbers of insects. This is why C. australis is absent from upland areas and from very frosty inland areas. The most up to date list is below. Dracaena indivisa). [78] The seeds of Cordyline australis are high in linoleic acid, one of the essential fatty acids. They are thick and have an indistinct midrib. [29], Cordyline australis was collected in 1769 by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific. Rather they are vigorous trees with broad, green leaves and broad canopies. The tree can also be found in large numbers in island restoration projects such as Tiritiri Matangi Island,[8] where it was among the first seedling trees to be planted.[9]. In 1833, Stephan Endlicher reassigned the species to the genus,Cordyline.[1][2]. In: Oates, M. R. ed. The genus name Cordyline derives from an Ancient Greek word for a club (kordyle), a reference to the enlarged underground stems or rhizomes,[32] while the species name australis is Latin for "southern". [81], In the North Island,[82] Māori cultivated selected forms of C. australis for food. [4] The largest known tree with a single trunk is growing at Pakawau, Golden Bay. The cabbage tree mealybug male and females look very f. Add your article. Tī kōuka (sometimes simply tī) is a familiar part of many landscapes around New Zealand. It has been developed using a number of resources, including: Bateman New Zealand historical atlas: ko papatuanuku e takoto nei , Bateman, Auckland, 1997 Ti kouka is the Maori name for cabbage tree, and is eminently more palatable. [26] The cabbage tree was an important fibre plant for early Māori. The Māori name, Piopiotahi, means "first native thrush". Eventually the tissue in the centre of the stem rots away and a cavity forms along its entire length. [60] Reminiscing in 1903 about life in New Zealand sixty or more years earlier, George Clarke describes how such a tapu grove of cabbage trees would attract huge numbers of pigeons: "About four miles from our house, there was a great preserve of wood pigeons, that was made as tapu as the native chiefs could devise. Different trees were selected for their degree of bitterness, which should be strong for medicinal use, but less so when used as a vegetable. Conveniently, too, the leaves made fine kindling. Cordyline australis Cordyline australis on farmland, South Island, New Zealand In the Stewart Island region, it is rare,[42] growing only on certain islands, headlands and former settlement sites where it may have been introduced by muttonbird collectors,[43] while on the Chatham Islands it is also largely "a notable absentee". It has long leaves and can easily be mistaken for a grass or a sedge. Steaming converted the carbohydrate fructan in the stems to very sweet fructose. Fine specimens are found along the upper Whanganui River. It was saved from extinction because its dwarf form found favour with gardeners and it came to be known as Cordyline 'Kirkii' recording the interest Thomas Kirk had in the plant. Cabbage trees, Cordyline australis, tē kōuka, with their tropical appearance may seem unlikely inhabitants of the Clutha basin, but they are in fact one of the few full size trees indigenous to this area. The cabbage tree is one of the most distinctive trees in the New Zealand landscape, especially on farms. [20] The Lands and Survey Department had a native plant nursery at Taupo in the central North Island, which was used to grow plants for use in parks, reserves and carparks. [30] The type locality is Queen Charlotte Sound. [12][85], Immature forms have become a popular annual house or ornamental plant under the name 'Spikes', or Dracaena 'Spikes'. For a listing in order of Māori name, with species names for most, see the Flora of New Zealand list of vernacular names. They are often found in groves in the Far North which are rumoured to be tapu (sacred) and in the old clearance days, Maori logging crews would refuse to cut them because Cordyline australis was one of the best, most delicious sources of carbohydrate known to the Maori farmers. In some areas, particularly in the north, no big trees are left. C. pumilio grows in the north of the North Island from North Cape at 34°S to Kawhia and Opotiki at about 38°S, generally under light forest and scrub. [4][17], It grows well as far north as the eastern coast of Scotland, including the village of Portgower. Use for cuts, cracks and sores, especially on the hands. The climate there is an extreme one, with hot, dry summers and cold winters. When a bushfire has cleared the land of vegetation, cabbage tree seeds germinate in great numbers to make the most of the light and space opened up by the flames. They serve to anchor the plant and to store fructose in the form of fructan. New Plymouth plant breeders Duncan and Davies included hybrids of C. australis and C. banksii in their 1925 catalogue, and have produced many new cultivars since. [79] Hardy forms from the coldest areas of the southern or inland South Island tolerate Northern Hemisphere conditions best, while North Island forms are much more tender. You will also like... Mātauranga Māori and Science. They also brewed beer from the root. [83] One of these, called tī para or tī tāwhiti, was grown because it suckers readily and forms multiple fleshy rhizomes. It is a very narrow-leaved species, and does not develop into the large tree-like form of C. australis. Millers Flat - named after an early European settler of the area, Walter Miller. Scrape out the softened part and the juice. While it is said that they foretell dry summers, it has been observed that they tend to follow dry seasons. [9] The kōata, the growing tip of the plant, was eaten raw as a blood tonic or cleanser. The common name Cabbage tree is attributed by some sources[2] to early settlers having used the young leaves of related species as a substitute for cabbage. used for making anchor ropes and fishing lines, cooking mats, baskets, sandals and leggings for protection when travelling in the South Island high country, home of the prickly speargrasses (Aciphylla) and tūmatakuru or matagouri (Discaria toumatou). The tree was well known to Māori before its scientific discovery. It was a different story when Europeans arrived. While much of that specialised knowledge was lost after the European settlement of New Zealand, the use of the tree as food and medicine has persisted, and the use of its fibres for weaving is becoming more common. The common name cabbage tree is attributed by some sources to early settlers having used the young leaves as a substitute for cabbage. Other common epiphytes include Griselinia lucida, as well as a range of mosses, liverworts, lichens and fungi. Approaching the land from the sea would have reminded a Polynesian traveller of home, and for a European traveller, conjured up images of the tropical Pacific". Cook called it a cabbage tree because the young leaves are edible, and his name has stuck. [60], A tough fibre was extracted from the leaves of C. australis, and was valued for its strength and durability especially in seawater. Ngā Huawhenua (The vegetables in Māori) Sometimes you will see huawhenua written as two words: Hua whenua. This gives the tree an advantage because it can regenerate itself quickly and the fire has eliminated competing plants. Roots tied separately for baking in bundles of hangehange, Geniostoma rupestre. Cabbage tree. In New Zealand, some of the coloured forms and hybrids seem to be more susceptible to attacks from the cabbage tree moth. [15], Large, peg-like rhizomes, covered with soft, purplish bark, up to 3 metres (10 feet) long in old plants, grow vertically down beneath the ground. [60] Juice from the leaves was used for cuts, cracks and sores. The rough bark also provides opportunities for epiphytes to cling and grow, and lizards hide amongst the dead leaves, coming out to drink the nectar and to eat the insects. [24] When growing in the open, tītī can become massive trees with numerous, long thin branches and relatively short, broad leaves. hua = (verb) to bear fruit, originate, to flower; whenua = land; So huawhenua is to bear fruit from the land = vegetables (as vegetables mostly come from the land or ground). Huhu are still eaten by some Māori today, especially the inland, bush iwi and hapū. The last name is due to its extensive use in Torbay, it being the official symbol of that area, used in tourist posters promoting South Devon as the English Riviera. A collection of over 1300 Christian, Mormon and non religious Māori first names and baby names with their equivalent English name. The leaves can be removed, and what remains is like a small artichoke heart that can be steamed, roasted or boiled to make kōuka, a bitter vegetable available at any time of the year. While much of that specialised knowledge was lost after the European settlement of New Zealand, the use of the tree as food and medicine has persisted, and the use of its fibres for weaving is becoming more common. A quote from Philip Simpson sums up the wide range of habitats the cabbage tree occupied in early New Zealand, and how much its abundance and distinctive form shaped the impression travellers received of the country: "In primeval New Zealand cabbage trees occupied a range of habitats, anywhere open, moist, fertile and warm enough for them to establish and mature: with forest; around the rocky coast; in lowland swamps, around the lakes and along the lower rivers; and perched on isolated rocks. [9][71], The Māori used various parts of Cordyline australis to treat injuries and illnesses, either boiled up into a drink or pounded into a paste. The fibrous leaves are not used so often by weavers today, but are still valued for their toughness and durability. [24], In Otago, cabbage trees gradually become less common towards the south until they come to an end in the northern Catlins. Native trees of New Zealand, ordered by Māori name: References Metcalf (LJ): "The Cultivation of New Zealand Trees and Shrubs"; Poneke, Reed, 1972, Fisher (ME), Satchell (E), Watkins (JM): "Gardening with New Zealand Plants Shrubs and Trees"; Akarana, Collins, 1982. It has long leaves and can easily be mistaken for a grass or a sedge. In parts of the Wairarapa, the trees are particularly spiky, with stiff leaves and partially rolled leaf-blades. They were a food source for both Māori and early European settlers. Cordyline pumilio, Auckland Botanic Gardens Scientific classification The syndrome, eventually called Sudden Decline, soon reached epidemic proportions in Northland and Auckland. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. For each of the 1000 Māori place names on this page we’ve provided a translation of its component parts and its overall meaning. [64], Cases of sick and dying trees of C. australis were first reported in the northern part of the North Island in 1987. Some people describe the shape of the Tuscan cabbage plant as resembling the leaves on a palm tree. It is one of the largest of all tree lilies. Synonym: cabbage tree, worm bark. / To Ngāti Porou the kōuka (cabbage tree) is kāuka, but despite that there is land at Waiapu called Ahikōuka. [77] The leaves were also used for rain capes, although the mountain cabbage tree C. indivisa, was preferred. Its fruit is a favourite food source for the New Zealand pigeon and other native birds.

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