He was most prominent from 1886 to 1886. She was very anxious to build up his physical strength, and he was encouraged to spend much time swimming, sailing, and riding. Alfonso XIII grew up to be a soldier and was fond of wearing the captain general uniform in public. After helping a French washerwoman find her husband, who was missing in action, in 1914, thousands of letters were sent asking for the Spanish king’s intervention in personal affairs. Author: Evan Andrews. Carolina García Sanz, Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueología en Roma. General Francisco Franco reinstated him as a Spanish citizen and restored his property (confiscated in 1932), but he eventually abdicated his rights to his third son, Don Juan. Real Madrid had two major names in their history: First they were Madrid CF (Madrid Club de Fútbol). Als sein Vater gilt offiziell deren Ehemann und Cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón. He left a legacy as the king who worked to spread Catholicism throughout the Kongo, abandoning the rituals and customs that were practices in the land. An der Vaterschaft bestehen allerdings Zweifel, da Francisco kränklich war und teils als zeugungsunfähig, teils als homosexuell bezeichnet wurde; als biologischer Vater wird daher gelegentlich Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans, ein Hauptmann der Leibgard… He grew up during a period in which the Spanish people had become tired of kings and wanted to have a republic. Because his father died before he was born he was considered King of Spain from the moment he was born. Alfonso XIII, King of Spain By Carolina García Sanz De Borbón, Alfonso (King Alfonso XIII, El Africano [the African], El rey regeneracionista, The Regenerator) King of Spain Born 17 March 1886 in Madrid, Spain Died 28 February 1941 in Rome, Italy Alfonso XIII was a controversial Spanish king during the first decades of the 20th century. The result was political instability; 33 governments were formed in Spain between 1902 and 1923, and the parliamentary system was steadily discredited. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic. Free trial available! In 1902, on attaining his 16th year, the King assumed control of the state. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The dictator established martial law and began cracking down on the regional separatists. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans (a captain of the guard). Forty members of the royal staff, as well as volunteers, worked together with Spanish diplomats all around Europe for prisoners’ relief. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was the Spanish sovereign from his birth on May 17, 1886, until the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic on April 14, 1931. An office dealing with prisoners-of-war and missing personnel was established at the Royal Palace in Madrid. He died on February 28th, 1941. Although lively and The Restoration was a constitutional system of shared sovereignty between the monarchy and parliament. In 1880 there were 21 Alfonso families living in Florida. He grew up in and around Spain with his mother (she was an Austrian Princess) and his two sisters. Alfonso XIII, 1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08. His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars. King Alfonso XIII (1885– 1931) was not a modernizer. Period: 1902 to 1923. The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. He set up a military junta, called the Directory, and when government ministers complained to the King, Alfonso dismissed them. Why did Alfonso XIII get expelled Because he permitted the dictator Primo de Rivera to dictate Spain from 1923-1930 and because he acted bad in the Marruecos Guerra When was the 2nd republic of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The victors demanded the king’s abdication; when the army withdrew its support from Alfonso, he was forced to leave Spain (April 14, 1931), though he refused to abdicate the throne. King Alfonso I, also referred to as “the Apostle of the Kongo,” served as King of the Kongo in Africa from the early part of the 1500’s through 1542. A member of the Bourbon Dynasty, ruled as king of Spain from 1886 until 1931.. Alfonso XIII was born king; his father, Alfonso XII (r. 1875–1885), died six months before his birth. Alfonso XIII of Spain, also known as El Africano, was the King of Spain from his birth in 1886 until the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfons XIII. Tusell, Javier / Queipo de Llano, Genoveva García: Victoria Eugenia, Queen, consort of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1887-1969), Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837-1901). King Alfonso XIII (1885– 1931) was not a modernizer. Official Alfonso XIII biographies argue that several blunders committed by the king during his reign were offset by his humanitarian work during the First World War; this was also a point made by the royalist propaganda in the Second Spanish Republic. ALFONSO XIII AND THE SECOND REPUBLIC 2. The estimated number of deaths related to the infection worldwide ranged from 20 to >50 million [1–3]. 1 (1) Hemophilia is a rare blood condition where people do not have the clotting factor which enables their blood to clot when bleeding. His mother, Maria Cristina of Hapsburg, served as regent during Alfonso's minority. wurde 1857 in Madrid als viertes von neun Kindern der Königin Isabella II. The Alfonso family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1880 and 1920. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. He was most active from 2001 to 2001. The relationship between the Portuguese and the Kongo (which is now part of the modern state of the Congo formerly known as Zaire) was based in trade. In Social Clips. His remains were later returned to Spain in 1980 after his grandson, Juan Carlos, became King of Spain after the death of General Franco. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Restoration Regime; Spanish neutrality; Pacifism; Humanitarianism; War prisoners, King Alfonso XIII, El Africano [the African], El rey regeneracionista; The Regenerator, A Young King: The Expectations for Spanish Regeneration, María Cristina, Queen, consort of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1858-1929), Victoria Eugenia, Queen, consort of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1887–1969), Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837–1901). 1886 - Alfonso XIII was born on the 17th of May. Despite Spanish neutrality in August 1914, the royal family was distressed by the European war because of each family member's background. Due to King Alfonso's whims and the absence of parliamentary majorities in the pre-World War I period, the monarchy was actively involved in ministerial instability. Although moves were made to nominate King Alfonso for the Nobel Peace Prize, they were never successful. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. The most Alfonso families were found in the USA in 1920. He was called "the Peacemaker"–as you can … The new system entailed a commitment between the monarch and two political parties (Conservatives and Liberals). Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. He was the first of the Portuguese Kings to rule in the Kongo. Diplomatically, Alfonso exhibited contradictory behavior as military operations evolved and depending on the belligerent representative to whom he was speaking. Some auth… Omissions? Alfonso XIII's mother, Queen María Christina of Habsburg-Lorraine (1858–1929), ruled as regent until he reached his sixteenth birthday. Reinado constitucional de Alfonso XIII Alfonso XII, (born November 28, 1857, Madrid, Spain—died November 25, 1885, Madrid), Spanish king whose short reign (1874–85) gave rise to hopes for a stable constitutional monarchy in Spain.. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. 3. Two years later, the king sided with General Miguel Primo de Rivera’s (1870–1930) dictatorship, dealing a death blow to the monarchy in Spain. The Restaurationist constitution of 1876 was expected to bring endemic antagonism between military and civilian powers to an end. Alfonso’s position worsened after the failure of the government of Antonio Maura (1909); the last hope for the parliamentary regime seemed extinguished. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Corrections? Both sons with hemophilia died without having children. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Meanwhile, the king aspired to take the lead in organizing an international peace conference in Madrid. Alfonso XIII appears as "King Buby" in Luis Coloma's story of Ratoncito Pérez (1894), which was written for the King when he was 8 years old. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. This prompted his mother, María Cristina, Queen, consort of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1858-1929) to resign the regency in 1902. The impact of military defeat in Morocco, and the post-World War I Depression, put pressure on the King, and after 12 unsuccessful governments during the period 1918–23 Alfonso did not resist the coup of General Primo de Rivera. In cooperation with the French, he restored order to north Africa and began extensive infrastructure upgrades in Spain. Disagreements between the monarch and prime ministers resulted in the “Oriental Crisis” that referred to changes of governments originating from the Royal Palace (Palacio de Oriente). Hence, Alfonso considered himself to be the long-awaited “regenerator” who would allow Spain to enter prosperous times and recover its prestige abroad. As a result of the war, Alfonso XIII acquired the nickname “Alfonso the African.” Perhaps the biggest miscue of Alfonzo’s reign was hitching his wagon to the likes of dictatorial Prime Minister Miguel Primo de Rivera (In office 1923-1930). King Alfonso XIII of Spain. Alfonso XIII, Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. The new system entailed a commitment between the monarch and two political parties (Conservatives and Liberals). News of the sickness first made headlines in Madrid in late-May 1918, and coverage only increased after the Spanish King Alfonso XIII came down with a nasty case a week later. von Spanien geboren. Currently, there is consensus surrounding the name given to the pandemic. Why Was It Called the 'Spanish Flu?' In 1906, Alfonso married Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, granddaughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. These rumours were used as political propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. King Alfonso XIII of Spain (husband of Victoria’s granddaughter, Victoria Eugenie) The war saw Germany (along with Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) square off against a coalition of allies including the United Kingdom, Romania and Russia.