In addition, 34 TaARF genes belonging to 15 homoeologous groups (TaARF3, TaARF4, TaARF5, TaARF9, TaARF10, TaARF11, TaARF12, TaARF13, TaARF15, TaARF17, TaARF18, TaARF19, TaARF20, TaARF21, and TaARF22) were up-regulated in response to all four treatments (NaCl, PEG6000, cold stress, and ABA), while several TaARF genes responded only to an individual stress (Figures 4B, C). These strategies use either RNA viruses as vectors or directly transfer functional nuclease protein into the cells (as opposed to DNA or mRNA encoding it). The remaining 6 detectable genes were down-regulated by PEG6000 treatment relative to the control (Figure 4B and Supplementary Figure S4). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03218.x, Liu, H.-H., Tian, X., Li, Y.-J., Wu, C.-A., Zheng, C.-C. (2008). Science 345, 1251788–1251788. 20.17). Peter Koehler, ... Katharina Konitzer, in Celiac Disease and Gluten, 2014. 11:586144. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.586144. Moreover, our systematic analysis identified three anther-specific TaARF genes (TaARF8, TaARF9, and TaARF21) whose expression was significantly altered by low temperature in thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) wheat; these TaARF genes are candidates to participate in the cold-induced male sterility pathway, and offer potential applications in TGMS wheat breeding and hybrid seed production. Out of 69 TaARF genes, 15 showed very low or undetectable transcript levels at the seedling stage; for three (TaARF9B, TaARF20-B, and TaARF20-D), we were unable to design effective gene-specific primers. Instead of gluten proteins, other protein sources have to be added. S6: stage 6, central callose stage; S7: stage 7, meiotic stage; S8: stage 8, tetrad stage; S9: stage 9, young microspore stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we used seeds from the wheat cultivar Jinghua 9, and exposed 14-day-old seedlings to drought (incubation in 25% (w/v) PEG-6000), cold (grown at 4°C), or salt (incubation in 250 mM NaCl) stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment (spraying with 0.1 mM ABA) for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 24 h as described (Xu et al., 2016). The expression of 14 TaARF genes exhibited at least 2-fold change at low temperature when compared to that in control conditions in the BS366 line. Common wheat variety J411 with low temperature treatment was choose as a control for comparison with the cold-treated TGMS wheat. They provide flour with a high water absorption capacity; dough with cohesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, and gas-holding ability; and bread with high volume and a porous crumb [11]. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the existence of small-RNA-mediated regulation of ARF transcript levels by direct cleavage at a site in the target ARF mRNA that is complementary to the miRNA. The analysis of the number and position of exons, introns, and conserved elements provides a foundation for our understanding of gene structural evolution, and thus function. Transcript levels for TaCALS5 strongly decreased in low temperature with respect to those in the control conditions (Supplementary Figure S9B), an expression pattern shared by TaARF8. Proc. Plant Biol. Treatment with the phytohormone ABA raised transcript levels for 42 TaARF genes assigned to 21 homoeologous groups after 5 or 10 h of treatment, a later response than when plants were treated with PEG6000. Plant Cell 17, 1979–1993. To investigate the potential regulation of TaARF genes by miRNAs, we used published wheat small RNA datasets to determine whether any would target TaARF genes. It is the world’s third largest crop that has an annual production of about 218.5 million hectares ( Kajlaa et al., 2015 ).It is a major … Data represent the mean of three biological repeats; error bars represent the standard error. Recent studies have revealed that ARF genes exhibit great diversity in their expression patterns between different plants and different organs to exert specific biological functions. For each sample, 1 µg of total RNA was treated with RNase-free DNase I (TaKaRa, Dalian, China) to eliminate genomic DNA contamination. Figure 6 The relative contribution of the A, B, and D genome homoeolog TaARF to the overall triad expression across NaCl (A), PEG6000 (B), ABA (C), cold treatment (D), and all tissues (E) based on RT-qPCR. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) proteins regulate a wide range of signaling pathways, from general plant growth to abiotic stress responses. Acad. In agreement with our previous identification of homoeologous groups, sub-genome A included 24 TaARF genes, followed by sub-genome D with 23 TaARF genes, and sub-genome B with 22 TaARF genes. The expression level of the remaining 51 TaARF genes from 24 homoeologous groups rose above the detection level and exhibited widely divergent expression patterns. BMC Genomics 17, 668. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2993-7, Weijers, D., Wagner, D. (2016). The subcellular localization of TaARF proteins was predicted with CELLO ( Plant Cell 30, 620–637. 132, 4107–4118. By contrast, TaARF9 showed a divergent spatial-temporal expression pattern from its Arabidopsis ortholog ARF18, which showed ubiquitous expression. In addition, we identified the complement of ARF genes from T. urartu, A. tauschii, and H. vulgare following the same procedure: we discovered 19 full-length ARF genes in T. urartu, 23 in A. tauschii, 43 in T. turgidum, and 22 in H. vulgare, in addition to one truncated gene in T. urartu (TuARF5), T. turgidum (TtARF5-A), and H. vulgare (HvARF8) (Supplementary Table S1). To probe the physiological roles of TaARF genes, we conducted an RT-qPCR analysis of TaARF gene expression profiles in eight different vegetative and reproductive tissues (root, stem, leaves, spike, seeds, and anthers at three different stages). Opin. doi: 10.1261/rna.895308, Liu, X., Zhang, H., Zhao, Y., Feng, Z., Li, Q., Yang, H.-Q., et al. 42, 315–328. Agrobacterium-Mediated Delivery of Exogenous DNA Into Plants. Triticum aestivum L. Synonyms - T. vulgare, T. sativum. TaARF4 was the gene most highly induced by ABA treatment and cold stress, by 35- and 120-fold, respectively (Supplementary Figures S5, S6). Calcium deficiency may result in weak bones and teeth, and osteoporosis. CRISPR technology in plants has produced gene knockouts and knock-ins, disrupted regulatory networks, suppressed viral infection, and has the capacity to restructure the chromosome to separate linked genes for crop improvement. Genetic Variability Study in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)Under Temperate Conditions. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02432.x, Wu, M.-F., Tian, Q., Reed, J. W. (2006). In this chapter, we explore the different diagnoses, typing, and detection techniques of cereal viruses available to the Middle Eastern countries. (2013). tauschii system is useful to address several important questions about unreduced gamete production in F1 hybrids, including (1) what cytological mechanism is responsible for F1 hybrid unreduced gamete production, (2) how many and what kind of genes are involved in it, and (3) how is the ability to cause F1 hybrid unreduced gamete production maintained in the parental species. Background WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. We treated 14-day-old wheat seedlings with 250 mM NaCl for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 24 h. Relative expression of each TaARF gene was normalized to TaACTIN. Uncovering Small RNA-Mediated Responses to Cold Stress in a Wheat Thermosensitive Genic Male-Sterile Line by Deep Sequencing. (1999b). Callose synthase (CalS5) is required for exine formation during microgametogenesis and for pollen viability in Arabidopsis. For instance, the Clade IIb ARFs TaARF4, TaARF12, and TaARF13 clustered with Arabidopsis ARF1/2 (Figure 1), suggesting a putative function in flower development and leaf senescence. Plant Sci. We detected preferential expression in anthers for 17 TaARF triads (TaARF1, TaARF2, TaARF4, TaARF6, TaARF7, TaARF8, TaARF9, TaARF11, TaARF12, TaARF13, TaARF14, TaARF15, TaARF20, TaARF21, TaARF22, TaARF23, and TaARF24) at stage 7 and stage 9, but no TaARF gene showed high transcript levels at stage 12. The development of CRISPR-based technology in plants allowed double-strand breaks to be introduced with relative ease, efficiency, and precision and this has significantly propelled plant biotechnology. 39, 1014–1028. Structural characterization suggested that ARF gene structure and domain composition are well conserved between plant species. Gill, in Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), 2013. Thus, based on our phylogenetic analysis, we explored the phylogenetic relationships of ARF proteins between wheat and model plant species, allowing us to speculate on putative TaARF functions, informed by the functional clades currently described in Arabidopsis (Guilfoyle and Hagen, 2007; Chandler, 2016). Gene features were extracted from the Ensembl Plants database and displayed by GSDS ( Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. In addition, Arabidopsis miR167 targets ARF6 and ARF8, while ARF10, ARF16, and ARF17 are targets of miR160 (Wu et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2007). The HMM profiles of ARF proteins (PF02309, PF02362, and PF06507; PF02309 is considered an optional domain) were extracted from the Pfam database ( The auxin response factor transcription factor family in soybean: genome-wide identification and expression analyses during development and water stress. Supplementary Figure 4 | Expression patterns of TaARF genes under drought stress. Small RNAs: Big Impact on Plant Development. Theresults aresummarizedin thediagramof Fig. (2018). Therefore, ... Schematic diagrams of TaCYP78A3–A, TaCYP78A3–B and TaCYP78A3–D gene structures. Figure 20.16. The Sears’ stocks, including monosomic, nullisomic–tetrasomic, ditelosomic, and double-ditelosomic lines in Chinese Spring wheat, are maintained by several groups. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A major concern for all genome editing technology is the introduction of off-target effects. We exposed 14-day-old wheat seedlings to 4°C for 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 24 h. Relative expression of each TaARF gene was normalized to TaACTIN. Gandum digunakan sebagai bahan baku tepung terigu yang kemudian digunakan untuk pembuatan berbagai produk makanan seperti roti, mie, kue, biskuit dan … We downloaded the sequences of wheat small RNAs from miRbase (, combined with results from our previous work (Tang et al., 2012). Thus, we could identify genes that play crucial roles in anther development during exposure to cold stress in the TGMS wheat, and discount genes that are only responding to cold-regulated pathways. 38, 638–654. [4] ... T Triticum aestivum. Taken together, our research provides significant insight for further investigating the role of members of the wheat ARF gene family in abiotic stress signaling and male reproductive development.

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