All numbers in … Eliot's view was the same as that of Scottish philosopher and historian Thomas Carlyle: "The true University of these days is a Collection of Books". Introduction—Sympathetic viewpoint towards modern literary theory. First, not everyone will agree with my list. Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) is the originator of the artistic canon and the originator of many of the concepts it embodies. Notable female philosophers from the contemporary period include Susanne Langer (1895–1985), Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986), Simone Weil (1909-1943), and Martha Nussbaum (1947– ). Examples would include the Eastern canon of literature, The Biblical Canon and The Western canon. Still, to study literary movements, a starting point must be assigned. [84] Much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period (475 BC to 403 BC), though elements of Chinese philosophy have existed for several thousand years; some can be found in the Yi Jing (the Book of Changes), an ancient compendium of divination, which dates back to at least 672 BC. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate", "The English Literary Canon – a work in progress", "Great Books Lists: Lists of Classics, Eastern and Western": this has numerous lists, including Harold Bloom's, John Searle, "The Storm Over the University,", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Western_canon&oldid=991887850, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with Danish-language sources (da), Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles needing additional references from May 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles to be expanded from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [citation needed]. However, in Britain and America at least women achieved major literary success from the late eighteenth century, and many major nineteenth-century British novelists were women, including Jane Austen, the Brontë family, Elizabeth Gaskell, and George Eliot. $29.95. Gabriel García Márquez[57] (1927 – 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter, and journalist. Students please study the graph on page 29 of TL501 to see how the discussion in this learning unit fits into the development of the South African legal system. So here I will give a list of what I consider the 'essential' works. His works have enjoyed broad international appeal and are still widely read. A second principle is "non-canonical", giving female writers such as Anne Askew, Elizabeth Cary, Emilia Lanier, Martha Moulsworth, and Lady Mary Wroth a representative selection. His Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects covers only artists working in Italy,[99] with a strong pro-Florentine prejudice, and has cast a long shadow over succeeding centuries. Aeschylus (525 BC – 456 BC)Oresteia; Seven Against Thebes; Prometheus Bound; Persians; Suppliant Women.Sophocles (c. 496-c. 405 BC)Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone; Electra; Ajax; Women of Trachis; Philoctetes. [70] Greek philosophy was probably influenced by the philosophy and mythological cosmogonies of the ancient Near East, as well as Indian Vedanta philosophy,[71][72][73] but philosophy, as we understand it, is a Greek creation. On his death in April 2014, Juan Manuel Santos, the President of Colombia, described him as "the greatest Colombian who ever lived. In the twentieth century, the Western literary canon started to include black writers not only from black American writers, but also from the wider black diaspora of writers in Britain, France, Latin America, and Africa. In the 19th century the beginnings of academic art history, led by German universities, led to much better understanding and appreciation of medieval art, and a more nuanced understanding of classical art, including the realization that many if not most treasured masterpieces of sculpture were late Roman copies rather than Greek originals. The White Man's Guide to White Male Writers of the Western Canon … [61] Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, and one of the leading writers of his generation. The classical art of Greece and Rome has, since the Renaissance, been the fount of the Western tradition. Many of the works deemed to be part of the musical canon are from genres regarded as the most serious, such as the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and opera. One of these, the most important, is to have read the great books. Summary. As Henry Louis Gates, Jr., has said, "it is fair to describe the subtext of the history of black letters as this urge to refute the claim that because blacks had no written traditions they were bearers of an inferior culture. In the 2000s, the standard concert repertoire of professional orchestras, chamber music groups, and choirs tends to focus on works by a relatively small number of mainly 18th- and 19th-century male composers. [citation needed]. The Blackwell anthology is still firmly organised around authors, however. The preface to the Blackwell anthology of Renaissance Literature from 2003 acknowledges the importance of online access to literary texts on the selection of what to include, meaning that the selection can be made on basis of functionality rather than representativity". As has been recorded in dispiriting detail by numerous observers, the wholesale embrace of multiculturalism in our universities has mainly led not to an opening-up of the curriculum to other cultures, but to a denigration of the products of our own Western tradition. As for the Western literary canon, a recent First Things podcast noted that millions of Americans participated in the Book of the Month Club or the Great Books of the Western World project. Lawrence, Tim; Guttridge, Peter. Such programs often focus exclusively on Western culture. The ideal answer would, of course, tend to be: read both. those books any person (or any English-speaking person) needed to know in order to claim an excellent general education. The Western Canon is Bloom's best-known book alongside The Anxiety of Influence (1973), and was a surprise bestseller upon its release in the United States. An educated person must tick several boxes. His Al-Quanun fi al-Tibb, was a masterpiece of Arabic systemization, in which he sought to collate and organize all known medical knowledge. He was not interested in directly quoting his non-Western influences, but instead allowed this non-Western aesthetic to generally influence his own musical work, for example, by frequently using quiet, unresolved dissonances, coupled with the damper pedal, to emulate the "shimmering" effect created by a gamelan ensemble. [55] Pamuk is the author of novels including The White Castle, The Black Book, The New Life, My Name Is Red, Snow, The Museum of Innocence, and A Strangeness in My Mind. Scholars have disagreed on what constitutes the appropriate starting point - some believe Western Liter… The Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students, The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages, Neustadt International Prize for Literature, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of important publications in philosophy, Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. However, the humanities/social sciences departments in general such as history, sociology, anthropology, and political science departments in English-speaking countries tend to favor continental methods such as those by Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002), Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) and Jürgen Habermas (1929- ).[88][89]. Aloysius Martinich, Fritz Allhoff, Anand Vaidya. In addition, since the Renaissance the nude, more often than not female,[citation needed] has had a special position as subject matter. As with all broad movements, Western Literature did not begin at one instant, with a single event, like the flipping of a light switch. [4], Bloom's canon is in many ways mine. The Western canon by Harold Bloom, January 2000, Blackstone Audiobooks edition, Audio Cassette in English - Unabridged edition Harcourt Brace. There has been an ongoing debate, especially in the US, over the nature and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted in critical theory, feminism, critical race theory, and Marxism. "The Western Canon" is hilarious. The Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century is a list of books compiled in 1999 by Literaturhaus München and Bertelsmann, in which 99 prominent German authors, literary critics, and scholars of German ranked the most significant German-language novels of the twentieth century. Folk music was already giving art music melodies, and from the late 19th century, in an atmosphere of increasing nationalism, folk music began to influence composers in formal and other ways, before being admitted to some sort of status in the canon itself. [79][80] Arthur Schopenhauer, in the preface to his book The World as Will and Representation, writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him"[81] The 19th-century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by Indian thought.[82][83]. [117], Books, music and art traditionally accepted by Western scholars as the most important in shaping Western culture, Expansion of the literary canon in the 20th century, American and Canadian university reading lists, Contemporary anthologies of renaissance literature, Best German Novels of the Twentieth Century, sfn error: no target: CITEREFJohannides1983 (. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages (New York: Riverhead Books), ISBN 978-1-57322-514-4 INTRODUCTION Harold Bloom’s approach to literary criticism is preoccupied with the sense of belatedness. Earlier composers, such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Orlande de Lassus and William Byrd, have also received more attention in the last hundred years. Chinese philosophy originates during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought",[84] philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 B.C. Some of his works are set in a fictional village called Macondo (the town mainly inspired by his birthplace Aracataca), and most of them explore the theme of solitude. ORIGINALLY THE CANON meant the choice of books in our teaching institutions, and despite the recent politics of multiculturalism, the Canon’s true question remains: What shall the individual who still desires to read attempt to read, this late in history? The Battle of the Books. Doubtless, much of the debate The Western Canon is intended to provoke will rage around the Cultural Literacy—style "ideal canon" Bloom sets forth in an appendix (no Behn, Gaskell, or Alice Walker — a favorite target of Bloom's ire — though it does include poet Rita Dove, Toni Morrison, Chinua Achebe, and other geographically and culturally far-ranging writers). Ancient Greek philosophy has consistently held a prominent place in the canon. 578 pp. [18] Knox used the intentionally "provocative" title "The Oldest Dead White European Males"[19] as the title of his lecture and his subsequent book of the same name, in both of which Knox defended the continuing relevance of classical culture to modern society.[20][21]. The first significant move toward the creation of a new Christian canon was initiated by Marcion, a ship owner and merchant, the son of a bishop of the church in Asia Minor. [34], The American critic Yvor Winters suggested in 1939 an alternative canon of Elizabethan poetry,[35] which would exclude the famous representatives of the Petrarchan school of poetry, represented by Sir Philip Sidney and Edmund Spenser. [3], Norman Fruman of the New York Times wrote that "The Western Canon is a heroically brave, formidably learned and often unbearably sad response to the present state of the humanities". However, by 1961 A. Alvarez was commenting that "it may perhaps be a little late in the day to be writing about the Metaphysicals. The essential component of such programs is a high degree of engagement with primary texts, called the Great Books. In 2012, Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary".[51][52]. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Notable original works can be found by author name. ", "Artist Biography: Barbara Hepworth 1903–75", "Art Gallery of Ontario partners with Tate Modern to present Georgia O'Keeffe retrospective in summer 2017 – AGO Art Gallery of Ontario", https://web.archive.org/web/20131007154443/http://honors.byu.edu/sites/default/files/student_files/RevisedGreatWorksRequirementPacket6.04.2013.pdf, https://www.baylor.edu/univ_sch/index.php?id=57393, "Denmark/ 4. This is reflected in his best-known work, The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages (1994), which rejects the multiculturalism prevalent in late 20th-century academia. One is "unabashedly canonical", meaning that Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson have been given the space prospective users would expect. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early 20th-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. [101], Women were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions. The word canon refers to a scholarly acceptance and definition of a body of (usually) literary works that comprise the ‘school of thought’ or fundamental contributory works in a particular field of literature. Literary critic Harold Bloom's The Western Canon is more than a required reading list — it is a vision. It is also described as “a basis for judgment; standard; criterion.” One of the definitions is, “the books of the Bible officially recognized by the Church,” And the idea of literary canon … 1. [86] It was during the Warring States era that what Sima Tan termed the major philosophical schools of China: Confucianism, Legalism, and Taoism, arose, along with other schools of philosophy that later fell into obscurity. Also during the twentieth century there has been a growing interest in the West, as well as globally, in major artistic works of the cultures of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South America, including the former colonies of European nations. January 2005, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 1-2, Harris, R. Baine (ed. [67] In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that "out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total. While this wiki is still under construction, many articles have heavy spoilers for Chapter Two and Song of the Eastern Sands. An Essay about the Western Canon and its Discontents. Kenzaburō Ōe (b. I don't think even Harold Bloom has had the time to read them all. This is reflected in the Nobel prizes awarded in literature. Only a relatively small number of works of Greek philosophy have survived, essentially those thought most worth copying in the Middle Ages. [32], In the twentieth century T. S. Eliot and Yvor Winters were two literary critics who were especially concerned with revising the canon of renaissance English literature. Approximately 30 of the books were Swedish. Marcia J Citron, for example, has examined "the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women [sic] composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works. ." Once a fundamental faith in the artistic quality of classics disappeared, the Western canon became the Wild West. English artist and sculptor Barbara Hepworth DBE (1903 – 1975), whose work exemplifies Modernism, and in particular modern sculpture, is one of the few female artists to achieve international prominence. And literatures of many other regions, such as Scandinavian, Polish, Hebrew, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, etc. $29.95. A "canon" is a list of books considered to be "essential", and it can be published as a collection (such as Great Books of the Western World, Modern Library, Everyman's Library, or Penguin Classics), presented as a list with an academic's imprimatur (such as Harold Bloom's,[5]) or be the official reading list of a university. This program, developed in the middle third of the 20th century, grew out of the curriculum at the University of Chicago. "I have included some Sanskrit works, scriptures and fundamental literary texts, because of their influence on the Western canon. This correlated largely with the shift in social and political views during the civil rights movement in the United States. [91], In classical music, during the nineteenth century a "canon" developed which focused on what was felt to be the most important works written since 1600, with a great concentration on the later part of this period, termed the Classical period, which is generally taken to begin around 1750. "[59], Mario Vargas Llosa, (b. The title is deliberately combative: The Western Canon. A related word is masterpiece or chef d'œuvre, which in modern use refers to a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, or workmanship. [8] Hesiod (ca.700BC)Works and Days; Theogony. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages is a 1994 book about western literature by the critic Harold Bloom, in which the author defends the concept of the Western canon by discussing 26 writers whom he sees as central to the canon. Staal, Advaita and Neoplatonism. ), Neoplatonism and Indian Thought, Norfolk Va., 1982: The International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, J.F. The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages is a 1994 book by Harold Bloom on Western literature, in which the author defends the concept of the Western canon by discussing 26 writers whom he sees as central to the canon. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest.[37]. Since the early twentieth century non-Western music has begun to influence Western composers. Citron, Marcia J. [96], In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by composers other than Bach and George Frideric Handel. Octavio Paz Lozano (1914 – 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat. Euripides (480 or … Whether or not this fear is grounded can only be known in the future, but as a reader of Bloom it is always refreshing to be in the presence of a writer who is enthusiastic about literature, and has a solid command of his … Each week in Bookends, two writers take on questions about the world of books. New York, San Diego, London: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1994. [3], The canon of books has been fairly stable, although it has very recently expanded to include more women and racial minorities, while the canons of music and the visual arts have greatly expanded to cover the Middle Ages, and subsequent centuries once largely overlooked. "Gender and the Musical Canon." Other Spanish languages have also their own literary canons. Winters claimed that the Native or Plain Style anti-Petrarchan movement had been undervalued and argued that George Gascoigne (1525–1577) "deserves to be ranked […] among the six or seven greatest lyric poets of the century, and perhaps higher". The title is deliberately combative: The Western Canon. He is also the recipient of numerous other literary awards. American philosopher Jay Stevenson argues: Classicist Bernard Knox made direct reference to this topic when he delivered his 1992 Jefferson Lecture (the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities). "[24] His book was widely cited by some intellectuals for its argument that the classics contained universal truths and timeless values which were being ignored by cultural relativists. I can understand, of course, the importance of criticizing a certain kind of literary canon, especially as a writer of color, and in particular the very conservative canon articulated by scholars like Harold Bloom (the “Western Canon” he calls it, a formulation which I think very obviously betrays his Eurocentric ideological project). [6][7][note 1], In addition the following are some of the important works from other cultures that have influenced the West: Gilgamesh (c. 2100 BC), Mahabharata (c. 800 BC), The Bible (c. 5th century BC - 1st century AD), One Thousand and One Nights (c. 7th century AD), The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973 or 978 – c. 1014 or 1031), and Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin (1715 or 1724 – 1763 or 1764). Summary: "Harold Bloom explores our Western literary tradition by concentrating on the works of twenty-six authors central to the Canon. People who merely describe what is happening now don't last. Defenders maintain that those who undermine the canon do so out of primarily political interests, and that such criticisms are misguided and/or disingenuous. from The Western Canon by Harold Bloom. These academics and educators included Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, Jacques Barzun, and Alexander Meiklejohn. Is Harold Bloom Wrong about Literary Canon? He argues against ideology in literary criticism; he laments the loss of intellectual and aesthetic standards; he deplores multiculturalism, Marxism, feminism, neoconservatism, Afrocentrism, and the New Historicism." Yesterday, I did a summary of the opening lectures to the Teaching Company Great Course called Great Authors of the Great Western Literary Tradition.In these lectures on the value and the interpretation of literature Prof. Arnold Weinstein of Brown University was sympathetic to some of the schools of interpretation such … The Western Canon does not exist in order to augment preexisting societal elites. [2] The word canon is derived from ancient Greek κανών, kanṓn, meaning a measuring rod, or standard. [50] He is best known to Western readers for his 1987 novel Red Sorghum Clan, of which the Red Sorghum and Sorghum Wine volumes were later adapted for the film Red Sorghum. Harold Bloom goes hard and doesn't pull any punches. Instead, as the cultures of Western nations (defined in this sense as European and North American countries) gradually evolved, so their Literatures gradually evolved to meet the questions and concerns of the time. As has been recorded in dispiriting detail by numerous observers, the wholesale embrace of multiculturalism in our universities has mainly led not to an opening-up of the curriculum to other cultures, but to a denigration of the products of our own Western tradition. [85] which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. including Antonio Vivaldi, Claudio Monteverdi, Domenico Scarlatti, Alessandro Scarlatti, Henry Purcell, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Arcangelo Corelli, François Couperin, Heinrich Schütz, and Dieterich Buxtehude. 578 pp. Buy The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages 1st Riverhead Ed by Bloom, Harold (ISBN: 8601416679822) from Amazon's Book Store. A classic is a book, or any other work of art, accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy, for example through an imprimatur such as being listed in a list of great books, or through a reader's personal opinion. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church.

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