Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. The effects of deforestation, waste-water runoff, and commercial agriculture fertilizer on facilitating the excess accumulation of nutrients in aquatic, and marine environments have been well studied and shown to be driving factors in eutrophication. These tropical populations often undergo seasonal cycles of growth and decay in concert with seasonal changes in sea temperature. Oogonia and antheridia occur in conceptacles embedded in receptacles on special branches. [19] Once ashore, sargassum provides vital nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to coastal ecosystems which border the nutrient-poor waters of the western North Atlantic tropics and subtropics. Two species of sargassum are found in the caribbean: Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. [20][21] Additionally, it decreases coastal erosion. [31] During the sargassum inundation event in 2018, 11,000 Acute Sargassum Toxicity cases were reported in an 8-month span on just the Caribbean islands of Guadalupe and Martinique.[32]. It matures early in its life, has both male and female components on a single plant, and is capable of self-fertilization. Sargassum is a genus of brown algae that is common in temperate and tropical waters. [44] The Caribbean Current and Antilles branch of the Atlantic North Equatorial Current are the major current transporters of sargassum in the region. [51], US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [1] Any number of the normally benthic species may take on a planktonic, often pelagic existence after being removed from reefs during rough weather; however, two species (S. natans and S. fluitans) have become holopelagic—reproducing vegetatively and never attaching to the seafloor during their lifecycles. The plants grow subtidally and attach to coral, rocks, or shells in moderately exposed or sheltered rocky or pebble areas. [9] There is also a total of 81 fish species (36 families represented) that reside in the Sargassum or utilize it for parts of their life cycles. Terminal (leaf) node. The Sargasso Sea, a known source area for sargassum blooms, is classified as an oligotrophic region. We rounded Hatteras in fair weather, and saw the line between the brilliant blue Gulf Stream full of gulf weed and the muddy grayish shore water as clearly defined as that between the sidewalk and the roadway in a street. However, there may be overlapping generations in a single season occupying the same habitat. Fucus (rockweed) and Sargassum (gulfweed) are two important brown seaweeds belonging to the order Fucales. There are no common names associated with this taxon. Sargassum fluitans, S. natans, and S. filipendula are three of the most abundant macroalgae species found at Puerto Rico’s coasts. Gulfweed was observed by Columbus. Species: Sargassum duplicatum J. Ag. The larvae of these species hatch within the sea and as they grow they travel to Europe or the East Coast of North America. common name Sargassum was derived. Sargassum is actually an algae. There are two species of the brown macro-algae: Sargassum natans and S. fluitans. [3], The Florida Keys and mainland South Florida are well known for their high levels of Sargassum covering their shores. Sargassum: A Complex 'Island' Community at Sea. 1) The leaves of S. natans are long-stalked and narrow; the leaves on … The Sargasso Sea seems to be be largely composed of two species: Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans, which probably originate in the Caribbean, but the floating masses seem to propagate themselves by framentation. 28-84. Both biologists and laypeople use this term to refer to this type of brown algae, an example of a situation where the scientific name for an organism is also its common name. Sargassum — Gulf weed — comprises a huge number of seaweeds in all oceans, both bottom dwelling and free floating. A total of 43 marine species were collected, of which one species was already known to be exotic and present in Canadian waters, 38 were native and 4 were nonindigenous species (Sargassum natans, Sargassum fluitans, Lepas pectinata and Stereotheca elongata). [21], However, beginning in 2011, unprecedented quantities of sargassum began inundating coastal areas in record amounts. A fair amount of it washes out through the Straits of Florida in the Gulf Stream and ends up in the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of the United States. 2-3. Sargassum species are found throughout tropical areas of the world and are often the most obvious macrophyte in near-shore areas where Sargassum beds often occur near coral reefs. They reproduce vegetatively and remain completely pelagic during their lifecycle (Hemphill 2005). In total, these Sargassum mats are home to more than 11 phyla and over 100 different species. [43] Trade winds additionally play a critical role in the annual hurricane season in the Western Atlantic. [50] As anthropogenic forces increase the variability of these factors the frequency, duration, severity, and geographic range of harmful algae blooms has increased causing millions of dollars of lost revenue as well as damaging fragile coastal and coral ecosystems. Sargassum is commonly found in the beach drift near Sargassum beds, where they are also known as gulfweed, a term that also can mean all seaweed species washed up on shore. Species of this genus of algae may grow to a length of several metres. [6] Some species have berrylike gas-filled bladders that help the fronds float to promote photosynthesis. Designations N/A. Sargassum — Gulf weed — comprises a huge number of seaweeds in all oceans, both bottom dwelling and free floating. Species: Sargassum filifolium C. Ag. There are two major characteristics for differentiating between the two. Recent inundation events have caused millions of dollars of lost revenue in the tourism industry, especially hurting small Caribbean countries whose economies are highly dependent on seasonal tourism. However, characteristics vary and identification of a particular sample may not be straightforward. Curated hierarchies for Sargassum natans (L.) … Scientific name: Sargassum muticum(Yendo) Fensholt, Sargassaceae, Fucales, Phaeophyceae, Heterokonta (Infrakingdom) These two species are very similar, and many weed lines contain both spe-cies. (2010, August 25). III) (7361473692).jpg 2,210 × 3,009; 478 KB Species: Sargassum echinocarpum J. Ag. Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Sargassum also has incredible potential to save money for islands’ agriculture sector. Sargassum is distributed in tropical and subtropical waters ranging from midlittoral to sublittoral zones. Many have a rough, sticky texture that, along with a robust but flexible body, helps it withstand strong water currents. [24] Since 2011 increasingly stronger inundation events have occurred every 2-3 years. [34] With every sargassum inundation event large amounts of nutrients are being transported from the open ocean to coastal environments, the extent of this greatly increased nutrient transport and its effect on marine and coastal ecosystems are still unknown. Later in life, the matured eel migrates back to the Sargasso Sea to spawn and lay eggs. Sargassum natans (L.) Gaillon. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powdered Sargassum—either the species S. pallidum, or more rarely, hijiki, S. fusiforme—in doses of 0.5 gram dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea. Illustrations by Julia S. Child (Schneider and Searles, 1991), Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 | (228) 872-4200 | AA/EOE/ADAI  Although it was formerly thought to cover the entirety of the Sargasso Sea, making navigation impossible, it has since been found to occur only in drifts. Preferred Names. Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh [family SARGASSACEAE] (stored under name); Fucus acinaria Turner [family FUCACEAE] Fucus lendigerus Esper [family FUCACEAE] Verified by William Albert Setchell, Sargassum cinctum Grunow [family SARGASSACEAE] Verified by William Albert Setchell, It is also believed that after hatching, young Loggerhead sea turtles use currents such as the Gulf Stream to travel to the Sargasso Sea, where they use the sargassum as cover from predators until they are mature. Sargassum: Not Just for Breakfast Any More. [40] Phosphates and iron transported via the trade winds from North Africa have been reported to have a fertilizing effect on sargassum growth; however, further data is required to understand its role in causing inundating sargassum blooms. Understanding this recent biological hazard's causes and drivers are critical as these inundation events become more commonplace. The University of Southern Mississippi | College of Science and Technology [2], Sargassum was named by the Portuguese sailors who found it in the Sargasso Sea after the wooly rock rose (Halimium lasianthum) that grew in their water wells at home, and that was called sargaço in Portuguese (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐɾˈɣasu]). 4-9. [24][26] Sargassum Natans I and Sargassum Fluitans III are the dominant sargassum species found in the Sargasso Sea. It can be used to build up dunes and beaches to combat the threat of beach erosion. The characteristics described below are useful in differentiating between the two species. The two most common species of float-ing Sargassum are sargasso natans and sargasso fluitans (Conover and Sieburth 1964). [11][12], Organisms found in the pelagic Sargassum patches,[13][14][8]. Siuda has since found that the small cnidarians known as hydroids that live on this particular sargassum are genetically distinct from hydroids living on the more common species S. fluitans , supporting the idea that the two populations of seaweed have different … This seaweed is generally very widespread and takes its name from the Portuguese word for little grapes, sargaço, which the tiny, air-filled bladders that sprout from its branches … Sargassum serves as a primary nursery area for a variety of commercially important fishes such as mahi mahi, jacks, and amberjacks. The Gulf has the second largest concentration of sargassum of any body of water in the world. Sargassum natans, left, and Sargassum fluitans, right Most of the (2011). [24] Sargasso Sea Alliance, 44 pp. Trade winds are strong, consistent northeasterly winds which blow-dry, dust-filled air from the Sahara across the Atlantic. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. The area, of about 2 million square miles, is known as the Sargasso Sea. Although members of this order are distributed worldwide, temperate Fucales differ from tropical Fucales. What is the Sargasso Sea? The genus Sargassum was erected by C Agardh (1820) and the type species is Sargassum bacciferum (Turner) C. Agardh (=Sargassum natans (Linnaeus) Gaillon). | Government of the Virgin Islands", "Read "Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas" at NAP.edu", "Toxic seaweed a menace to Caribbean tourists", "Recent Sargassum Inundation Events in the Caribbean: Shipboard Observations Reveal Dominance of a Previously Rare Form", "Sargassum seaweed: limit the exposure of residents and workers to hydrogen sulphide - Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail", "Tracking Sargassum's ocean path could help predict coastal inundation events", "Eukaryotic and cyanobacterial communities associated with marine snow particles in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea", "Satellite Data Reveal Growth and Decline of Sargassum", "Scientists discover the biggest seaweed bloom in the world", "Saharan Dust Plume Slams U.S., Kicking Up Climate Questions", "Movement of Hurricanes: steered by the global winds", "Antilles Current | current, Atlantic Ocean", https://oceancurrents.rsmas.miami.edu/caribbean/caribbean.html, "The Effects of Deforestation on Nutrient Concentrations in Tributaries of Lake Tanganyika", "Climate Change and Harmful Algal Blooms", "Impacts of Climate Change on the Occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms", Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The SuriaLink Seaplants Handbook – Sargassum, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sargassum&oldid=990506353, Articles with dead external links from September 2020, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles with style issues from November 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 21:32. Scientific Name Sargassum natans. [15] In the Caribbean we find both S. natans and S. fluitans – two species which are holopelagic; they reproduce without ever being attached to the sea floor. [35] With warm, oxygen-poor waters and low nutrient contents, biomass production is limited by what little nutrients are present. The Sargasso Sea plays a major role in the migration of catadromous eel species such as the European eel, the American eel, and the American conger eel. During a sargassum inundation event in 2018, one sargassum bloom measured over 1600 square kilometers, more than three times the average size.[24][25]. Sargassum natans Name Synonyms Baccalaria natans (L.) S.F.Gray, 1821 Baccalaria teres S.F.Gray, 1821 Fucus baccifer Turner, 1802 Fucus bacciferus Turner Fucus natans L. Fucus sargasso S.G.Gmelin, 1768 Sargassum bacciferum (Turner) C.Agardh Homonyms Sargassum natans (L.) Gaillon Sargassum natans L. Common names Recognized by Environments EOL. [8] These endemic organisms have specialized patterns and colorations that mimic the Sargassum and allow them to be impressively camouflaged in their environment. Abbreviation sanat. This community is being affected by humans due to overfishing, trash and other types of pollution, and boat traffic, which could eventually lead to the demise of this diverse and unique habitat. Most species within the class Phaeophyceae are predominantly cold-water organisms that benefit from nutrients upwelling, but the genus Sargassum appears to be an exception. The lipids content of Sargassum spp. Synonyms N/A. Sargassum: Not Just for Breakfast Any More. The protection and management of the Sargasso Sea: The golden floating rainforest of the Atlantic Ocean. S. natans is a bushy seaweed with narrow leaf blades which are golden brown with toothed edges. Species: Sargassum filipendula C. Agardh Species: Sargassum fissifolium (Mertens) C. Ag. photo by GCRL. [40][41][39] Nutrient output from the Amazon River has been shown to have a direct, yet delayed, effect on large Sargassum inundation events, with events occurring one to two years following years of high nutrient output. In fact, two common species found in Florida waters, S. natans and S. fluitans, are free floating all their lives. When Sargassum loses its buoyancy, it sinks to the seafloor, providing energy in the form of carbon to fishes and invertebrates in the deep sea, thus serving as a potentially important addition to deep-sea food web. [22] Coastlines in Brazil, the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and the east coast of Florida saw quantities of sargassum wash ashore up to three feet deep. [45] [46], Researchers have recently begun using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite imagery and ocean current data to track and forecast inundation events with a high level of accuracy.[47]. They are generally brown or dark green in color and consist of a holdfast, a stipe, and a frond. (2013, June 01). Retrieved November 28, 2017. Massive amounts of floating sargassum present a physical barrier preventing corals and seagrasses from receiving sufficient light, fouling boat propellers, and entangling marine turtles and mammals.[33]. The Caribbean has been inundated with sargassum since 2015, although the unusual blooms started in 2011. [10] Other marine organisms, such as young sea turtles, will use the Sargassum as shelter and a resource for food until they reach a size at which they can survive elsewhere. [27][28] [29]. Common name; العربية: ... Sargassum natans‎ (1 P, 16 F) Sargassum notarisii‎ (1 F) P Sargassum pacificum‎ (1 F) Sargassum paniculatum‎ (1 F) Sargassum paradoxum‎ (2 F) ... Media in category "Sargassum" The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from, "Stinking mats of seaweed piling up on Caribbean beaches", "Sargassum: A Complex 'Island' Community at Sea", https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03edge/background/sargassum/sargassum.html, "Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability", "Sea temperature shapes seasonal fluctuations in seaweed biomass within the Ningaloo coral reef ecosystem", "Sargassum Seaweed: An important element for beaches and shoreline stability. In 2015, most of the seaweed washing ashore was an uncommon form of Sargassum natans with the nondescript name of morphotype 8. Casazza, T. L., & Ross, S. W., PhD. Common Name N/A. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceansof the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. It is called 海藻; hǎizǎo in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is used to resolve "heat phlegm".[5]. The photos and drawings below provide assistance in differentiating between the two. The seaweed is most famously associated with the Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda, where sargassum has long blanketed the calm waters. Unresolved name: Chromista » Brown ... names; Scientific Names. Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Variations in sea level, salinity, water temperature, chemical composition, rainfall patterns, and water acidity all play roles in regulating algae blooms. Species: Sargassum cristaefolium C. Agardh Species: Sargassum cymosum Species: Sargassum desvauxii (Mertens) C. Ag. As long as it is properly cleaned Any numbe… 10-27. Sargassum natans: Sargassum fluitans: Pods - usually tipped with spikes or small leaves; Leaves - long-stalked, narrow; Pods - usually not tipped with spikes or small leaves; Leaves - short-stalked, broad [27] Recent net sampling studies have found Sargassum Natans VIII, a previously rare type, are constituting a dominating percentage of sargassum biodiversity in the Western Atlantic and Sargasso Sea. Sargassum crassifolium J. Ag. Media in category "Sargassum natans" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. Sargassum is an excellent medium for use as landfill. Large, pelagic mats of Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea act as one of the only habitats available for ecosystem development; this is because the Sargasso Sea lacks any land boundaries. [24], While the Sargasso Sea is a known source of sargassum blooms, variations in the sargassum types composing these inundation events have led researchers to believe that the Sargasso Sea is not the point of origin of inundating sargassum. Summary Science and Supporting Evidence Case. The genus is very large, with close to 850 species names currently listed in Algaebase (http://www.algaebase.org), of which around 350 are flagged as current (Guiry and Guiry, 2009). A popular history of British sea-weeds (Pl. Kingdom Chromista > Phylum Phaeophyta > Class Phaeophyceae > Order Fucales > Family Sargassaceae > Genus Sargassum [Go to Species Page] Legend. No Common Name Sargassum natans (Linnaeus) Gaillon . [7] The Sargassum patches act as a refuge for many species in different parts of their development, but also as a permanent residence for endemic species that can only be found living on and within the Sargassum. In fact, two common species found in Florida waters, S. natans and S. fluitans, are free floating all their lives. [42] The Caribbean is located in a region heavily effected by trade winds. Sargassum, also called gulfweed or sea holly, genus of about 150 species of brown algae (family Sargassaceae) generally attached to rocks along coasts in temperate regions or occurring as pelagic (free-floating) algae in the open sea. Given current agricultural policies and practices, it is unlikely these inundation events will disappear on their own without human intervention. The Sargasso Sea in the western Atlantic Ocean, which is often characterized by floating masses of Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, is named for the seaweed. [48][49] Since detrimental sargassum inundation events did not begin until 2011, it is likely that an unknown nutrient threshold was reached and surpassed. Most species within the class Phaeophyceae are predominantly cold-water organisms that benefit from nutrients upwelling, but the genus Sargassum appears to be an exception. Sargassum is a planktonic (free-floating) seaweed found in the tropics. In the Caribbean, two species are common, Sargassum fluitans and Sargassum natans, which both float in the water, unlike other Sargassum species that are found on the ocean floor. [8] Below is a list of organisms that are associated with the Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea. [4], Sargassum species are also cultivated and cleaned for use as an herbal remedy. [36] Historically, low nutrient levels in the Sargasso Sea have limited sargassum production; however, new influxes of nitrogen and phosphorus are driving factors in increased biomass production[37][38][39], Recent studies have found three likely drivers of nutrient influx linked to increasing sargassum biomass: an increase in nutrient output from the Amazon River, increased nutrients in the Gulf of Mexico, and coastal upwelling off the West African Coast which transfers deep nutrient-rich waters to the upper water column where sargassum resides. In tropical Sargassum species that are often preferentially consumed by herbivorous fishes and echinoids, a relatively low level of phenolics and tannins occurs.[16]. Unprecedented sargassum inundation events cause a range of biological and ecological impacts in affected regions. Researchers globally agree that continued research is required to quantify the effect of marine chemical changes and other environmental factors in the recent increase in Sargassum biomass and inundation events. [23][19] The first major sargassum inundation event occurred in 2011 and had a biomass increase of 200 fold compared to the previous eight years average bloom size. 1. [40], The physical drivers behind sargassum inundation events are prevailing winds and ocean surface currents. Fucus natans sensu Turner (1802a: 48--55; 1808: 99--103, pl. Authority (Linnaeus) Gaillon. In limited amounts, washed ashore sargassum plays an important role in maintaining Atlantic and Caribbean coastal ecosystems. [30] Decomposing sargassum additionally creates hydrogen sulfide gas, which causes a range of health impacts in humans. The two floating species of Sargassum are Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. It is increasingly being used as fertilizer and compost. Contents Copyright © 2020 Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Center for Fisheries Research & Development, Pods - usually tipped with spikes or small leaves. Click on any photo to open a larger version. Scientific name i: Sargassum natans: Taxonomy navigation › Sargassum. Laffoley, D.d’A., Roe, H.S.J., Angel, M.V., Ardron, J., Bates, N.R., Boyd, I.L., Brooke, S., Buck, K.N., Carlson, C.A., Causey, B., Conte, M.H., Christiansen, S., Cleary, J., Donnelly, J., Earle, S.A., Edwards, R., Gjerde, K.M., Giovannoni, S.J., Gulick, S., Gollock, M., Hallett, J., Halpin, P., Hanel, R., Hemphill, A., Johnson, R.J., Knap, A.H., Lomas, M.W., McKenna, S.A., Miller, M.J., Miller, P.I., Ming, F.W., Moffitt, R., Nelson, N.B., Parson, L., Peters, A.J., Pitt, J., Rouja, P., Roberts, J., Roberts, J., Seigel, D.A., Siuda, A.N.S., Steinberg, D.K., Stevenson, A., Sumaila, V.R., Swartz, W., Thorrold, S., Trott, T.M., and V. Vats. Common Gulfweed or Spiny Gulfweed (Sargassum natans) Sargassum natans with attached hydroids As the name suggests, Common Gulfweed is the most common Sargassum species found in the Sargasso Sea and washed up on Bermuda’s beaches. Common Names. The decomposition of large quantities of sargassum along coastlines consume oxygen, creating large oxygen-depleted zones resulting in fish kills. ranges between 1.0 and 2.5% (total lipids)Diaz-Vazquez and others (2015) “Demineralization of Sargassum spp. en English; Piemontèis; Português do Brasil; Türkçe; français; suomi; македонски When establishing the genus Sargassum, C. Agardh (1820a: 6) disagreed with Turner's interpretation of Fucus natans and treated that name and F. baccifer as synonyms, but unfortunately he confused the nomenclature by adopting the later name (as Sargassum bacciferum). Website Comments | In-Touch! Sargassum horneri is an annual species, completing its entire life cycle in less than a year. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs, and the genus is widely known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. The Atlantic Ocean's Sargasso Sea was named after the algae, as it hosts a large amount of Sargassum.

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