Main article: Final-obstruent devoicing Final devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German , Dutch , Polish , and Russian , among others. I noticed recently that in my speech, word-final obstruents are just not voiced, not even partially voiced. Final devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Polish, and Russian, among others.In these languages, voiced obstruents in the syllable coda or at the end of a word become voiceless.. Languages with word-final obstruent devoicing often have homophones. Examples: eighth [t∞] width [d∞] tenth [n∞] health [l∞] 5. Figure (1) contains examples of stop-final words. In general, a high vowel (/i/ or /u/) that appears in a low-pitched syllable between two voiceless consonants is devoiced and often deleted outright. Relevant examples are in (1). Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required. Final-obstruent devoicing can lead to the neutralization of phonemic contrasts in certain environments. Looking at the rules of Spirantization and Devoicing, it is evident that these two rules must must be ordered such that Spirantization feeds Devoicing… Username/Email * Password * This alternation is similar to that found in other Iberian languages including Spanish, Galician, Portuguese, and Basque. For example, /doggu/ is realized as [dokku], and /beddo/ is realized as [betto]. Final obstruent devoicing. The phenomenon to be considered in this paper is the voicing alternation that obstruents . Moreover, obstruent devoicing in syllable final position is a common pattern crosslinguistically, whereas voicing in this position is extremely rare, if in fact it occurs at all. WikiMatrix. Examples: Deletion of singleton consonants in syllable-final position Note: When final nasals deleted, nasality maintained on preceding vowel. For example, the Dutch words hard (hard) and hart (heart) ... Word-final obstruent devoicing is common in many languages. reported to also undergo devoicing. Dutch and Afrikaans. If I'm correct about terminal obstruent devoicing continuing in the region, then they never did speak Old High German as we usually think of it note that terminal obstruent devoicing is one of the criteria for distinguishing MHG from OHG. Consonants remaining from reduced final clusters may be eligible for deletion. The term obstruent refers to the class of sounds ... they can cause devoicing in neighbouring sonorants. Like the other languages we discuss in these pages, Catalan has asymmetries in the distribution of voiced and voiceless obstruents. [+continuant] to a voiced obstruent in syllable coda. OBSTRUENT (=stops, fricatives and affricates) DEVOICING: ... Alveolar consonants become dental before dental consonants. As with final devoicing, there is an interesting sonorant glitch here: the assimilation also takes place over an intervening sonorant. the latter kind with respect to obstruent voicing specification. Obstruent voicing and devoicing. Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.In such languages, voiced obstruents become voiceless before voiceless consonants and in pausa. final obstruent devoicing as a form of fortition, hardening (Verhärtung) or strengthening.1 The view has deep roots in the philological tradition and continues to be widely held right up to the present day (see for example Iverson & Salmons 2007). At the end of a word, non-high pitched vowels are devoiced. Nevertheless, voiced obstruents are devoiced to some extent in final position in English, especially when phrase-final or when followed by a voiceless consonant (for example, bad cat [bæd̥ kʰæt] ). English does not have phonological final-obstruent devoicing of the type that neutralizes phonemic contrasts; thus pairs like bad and bat are distinct in all major accents of English. Latvian does not feature final-obstruent devoicing. Piroth and Janker (2004), for example, conducted an acoustic analysis of German final obstruent devoicing with six speakers from three different dialect regions of Germany. WikiMatrix . I present a new model for deriving phonological typology within the Channel Bias approach. WikiMatrix. Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Polish, Turkish, and Wolof. :Final obstruent devoicing: A phonological constraint which is found in a number of the world’s languages. Final-obstruent devoicing. Most varieties of English don't have full devoicing of final voiced obstruents. Examples from Benni (1959) [IPA transcription added] [vjAtr] wiatr ‘wind’ [> tsEtr] cedr ‘cedar tree’ [bACæ] ba sn ‘fairy tale’ ["bO.jACæ] boja zn ‘fear’ Some sources mention that devoicing is not always realised. Such behaviour is … In the exact same context, Devoicing requires the suppression of [+voice] and the insertion of [–voice]. In general, Gothic consonants are devoiced at the ends of words. These final obstruents may exhibit a voicing alternation that is traditionally described as syllable-final devoicing: underlying /d/ in /hond/ becomes a /t/ when syllable-final ([hOnt]) and remains a /d/ otherwise ([hOn-den]). As will be illustrated in the next sections, Cracow/Poznań Polish seems to be more conservative: final devoicing applies only phrase-finally in this dialect, whereas it is word-final in Warsaw Polish. However, if there is no other voiced obstruent, Lyman’s Law does not come into play, and devoicing is not triggered. The process can be written as *C [+voice] > C [-voice] /__#. obstruent devoicing from their L1 to both FLs, which yields a high am ount of non-target-like productions. Obstruents must be voiceless (1) immediately preceding a voiceless sound (2) finally in some domain, usually the word. display in different phonological environments. Initial voicing is a process of historical sound change where voiceless consonants become voiced at the beginning of a word. Post-Nasal Devoicing and a Probabilistic Model of Phonological Typology Gašper Beguš begus@fas.harvard.edu Abstract This paper addresses one of the most contested issues in phonology: the derivation of phonological typology. Examples: feel, tilt ["] 6. For these reasons, we will take the devoicing analysis in (11) to be the correct one. As shown in (3), if voiced geminates co-occur with other voiced obstruent(s), the devoicing applies as expected. For example, Russian бес ('demon', phonemically /bʲes/) and без ('without', phonemically /bʲez/) are pronounced identically in isolation as [bʲes]. 2 The puzzle: Incomplete final devoicing The examples in (i) give an alternating pair: a voiceless obstruent at the end of a syllable (in all these cases actually at the end of the word) shows up as voiced when it occurs with an inflectional suffix starting with a vowel — in other words, if it appears in an onset. In these languages, voiced obstruents in the syllable coda or at the end of a word become voiceless. Many languages with word-final obstruent devoicing also have syllable-final devoicing, but in certain cases only if the following obstruent is voiceless. examples that illustrate syllable final obstruent devoicing in Dutch. Post-Nasal Devoicing and a Probabilistic Model of Phonological Typology Ga sper Begu s Abstract This paper addresses one of the most contested issues in phonology: the derivation of phono-logical typology. In word-final position, only voiceless obstruents are possible. In such languages, voiced obstruents become voiceless before voiceless consonants and in pausa. VELARIZATION Alveolar laterals become velarized word-finally or before a consonant in the same syllable. Phonological specifications for onset, nucleus and offset for 1697 Dutch monomorphemic words with a final obstruent. These examples appear to point to a general rule of voice assimilation whereby an ob-struent acquires the voice value of the immediately following obstruent. Examples. The PIE and Pre-PIE pronominal system from the perspective of a wave model . It may be helpful for language learners and teachers to have a basic understanding of the International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA, before reading this article. Partial to full devoicing of the sonorant is probably the norm for most speakers. 1.1 Stop/spirant alternation in Catalan (SSA) The voiced stops [b,d,g] alternate with the voiced spirants [”,¶,'] in Catalan. The bilingual learners present a higher amount of target-like word-final voiced In contrast, palatalization of lingual trills (in contrast to velars), and final obstruent voicing (as opposed to devoicing) are uncommon sound … Is English developing final obstruent devoicing? 1 (1) Devoicing in word- nal obstruent+sonorant sequences. Final devoicing has become systematic in modern Dutch. When voiced obstruents deleted, length of preceding vowel maintained. Zonneveld (1983) makes the observation that in Dutch obstruent clusters are generally voiceless within words, examples are spat „splash‟, pasta „idem‟, and naakt „naked‟. All of these processes will be discussed further below. For example, as expressed by the Panchronic Sound Pattern Generalization, velar palatalization and final obstruent devoicing are comm on sound changes and they are also common synchronic sound patterns (Guion, 1998; Blevins, 2004, 2006). They observed complete neutralization of vowel duration and voicing during stop closure in syllable- and word-final position for all six speakers, whereas two South German speakers produced a consonant duration … Devoicing is a technical term from linguistics, in particular from the phonetics and phonology, and refers to the process that sound consonant (ie plosives, affricates and fricatives ) at the end of a syllable (ie in their final position ) lose their voicing and voiceless pronounced be. spirantization), final obstruent devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation. Initial voicing. Final Devoicing in Dutch. The markedness of voiced obstruents also holds for obstruent clusters, albeit under occasional additional restrictions. Example sentences with "devoicing", translation memory.

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