Short-term (5 d) and prolonged-term (5 d/week, for 10 weeks) feeding, was followed by mating with untreated adult virgin females. The results suggest that cellular changes in hippocampus after PMN are partially restored after maternal Spirulina supplementation and one could envision intervention approaches using Spirulina against malnutrition. Food and water intakes were also measured daily, At the end of the study, the rats were anesthetized with, ether for blood collection and then killed by cervical, dislocation. More and more research suggests that the future of foods is plant-based. The extract-receiving, average weight gain of the control males was 60, There were no consistent significant differences in the, clinical chemistry results between our treated and control, electrolyte levels were not increased in any treated animals, throughout the 12 weeks of investigation. Postmortem examination of the test groups also showed no abnormalities in both gross and histological findings. Also, no significant changes were observed in differential counts, - Purification and identification of biological active compounds from an herbal extract and used them as the standard markers for standardization of that herbal extract. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 312, Belay A (2002) The potential application of, a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. Its chemical composition includes proteins (55%-70%), carbohydrates (15%-25%), essential fatty acids (18%), vitamins, minerals and pigments like carotenes, chlorophyll a and phycocyanin. 1984), a single event of asthma (Ng et al. The algal dry weight (DW) was greatly enhanced at pH 9.0. The filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis has been examined for salt tolerance. On 5 May 1999, the Canadian Health Protection Branch, after having warned consumers that algae-based products could contain harmful toxins to the liver, decided to examine the extent of the problem by conducting strict analysis, through the Office of Natural Health Products, the Therapeutic Products Program and the Food Directorate of the Health Protection Branch on many samples of supplements on the market. Copyright © 2017 Priming of faba bean seeds in Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) suspension before cultivation ameliorated the adverse effects of the herbicide on the plant. Valeurs alimentaires: La spiruline, très bonne source de protéines végétales, est connue pour ses vertus nourrissantes, détoxifiantes et stimulantes du système immunitaire. Ltd. (Songkhla, Thailand). b) The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), a body responsible for certifying the suitability and safety of food at European level, recognizes spirulina as a food (such as salad to understand) and therefore not associated with any risk for health. J Food Sci Technol, consumption on reproduction and peri- and. Photoprotection, which is used to prevent UVB interaction and to attenuate UVB related damage could be used to prevent the effects of UVB irradiation. (ISSN:1097-8135). Both have been used as food, dietary supplement, and feed supplement [ 1 ]. The total gene numbers vary from 5,401 to 6,676, and the percentage of protein-coding genes reaches up to 99% Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is an important cause of a number of harmful side effects such as sunburn, photoaging, pigmentation and skin cancer. cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis) is a history of [...] over three billion years. The study has revealed that Spirulina plays a key role in weight reduction, lowering the blood cholesterol levels and improving the lipid profile of patients. 1959. After the treatment, the striatal dopamine (DA) content was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography, and lipid peroxidation was studied as an index of oxidative stress. Algae were grown in Spirulina Medium (Aiba and Ogawa, 1977) under axenic conditions. Arthrospira, Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima, known a s spirulina. The most frequently self-reported health-beneficial effects of supplementation included the following: increased immunity, higher vitality, improved hair and skin quality, and better general well-being. It is widely accepted that the induction of antioxidant enzymes is a major strategy for protecting cells against a variety of endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds such as ROS and chemicals, ... M.M.A. The dried powder (0.5 kg) was successively extracted by maceration with. Industrial processing of cassava and other starch-containing tubercles generates high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater that cannot be directly disp… They, were then used for the acute toxicity tests. Spirulina All, was estimated by the up-and-down method (Bruce, groups of ten animals (control and test groups), each, Male and female rats were randomly divided into four, groups of six. [1]. Although today the physiological mechanism underlying the production of these cyanotoxins is not known, some evidences show that some of them, for example, microcystins can be transported outside the cell in the surrounding aquatic environment through active transport processes that entail a non-negligible energy expenditure. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium, or blue-green algae, belonging to the Arthrospira genus. Arthrospira platensis var. These and other Arthrospira species forming helical trichomes were once classified into a … The effect of Spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients was carried out in Coimbatore city. as a function of growth stimuli. 2017). It is comprised of at least 60% all-vegetable protein, essential vitamins and phytonutrients such as the rare essential fatty acid GLA, sulfolipids, glycolipids and polysaccharides. Nutr Rep Int, Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CN, Brewer HB, Clark LT, Hunninghake DB, Pasternak RC, Smith SC, Stone NJ (2004), Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol, Education Program Adult Treatment. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. In March , Arthrospira platensis became the first filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium to have its genome sequenced and published(3). Appreciation also goes to Ms. Pratum Ritthisunthorn and. Arthrospira Platensis Harmful. . Three months old healthy Sprague Dawley females (n = 24) were shifted to normoprotein (NC; 20% protein) and low protein (LP; 8% protein) diets 15 days before conception. This study also concentrates on the economic and technical aspects associated with these aeration systems. Epub 2016 Mar 2. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. 2016; Nawrocka et al. They, were weighed initially and then twice a week until termina-, tion. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis were evaluated as nutraceuticals. The same article by Anses, the French Health Agency, with which we started, refers to an internal report which is reiterated in a sufficiently clear way that although many cyanobacteria in nature produce toxins, there are no such records in the scientific literature about Arthrospira Platensis, except for 2 specific cases [2]; also in this circumstance, the samples came from two lakes in Kenya, where there are often blooms of Anabaena and Microcystis, two very toxic algae. It is essential to demonstrate their safety in view of their public health aspects, the interest of the producers and image of these new sources of foods. In the subchronic, toxicity study, male and female Wistar rats at about 6 weeks, of age and weighing between 300 and 450 g were supplied, from the breeding colony of the Animal House Facility, Unit, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University. The correct taxonomic definitions of Arthrospira have been revealed through the study of the ultrastructural details of its trichomes and 16S rRNA gene sequences . Arthrospira Platensis Harmful. Bien que communément appelée « spiruline » (« spirulina » en anglais), cette cyanobactérie appartient au genre Arthrospira. per se is not toxic (Krishnakumari et al. ) Evaluation of the toxicity of Arthrospira (Spirulina), Biochemical compounds and sub-chronic toxicity test of Chlorella sp. The measurement of hippocampus lipoperoxidation did not demonstrate significant difference (p>0.05) when Spirulina platensis was added to hypercholesterolemic diet. Although it is not able to produce toxins that are harmful to human health, spirulina could come into contact with it if it were naturally grownin open puddles, lakes or with non-pure or controlled waters, in case also other cyanobacteria with toxic capacity were present. Spirulina partially prevents MPTP neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, suggesting it could be a possible alternative in experimental therapy. In productive cultures, Arthrospira is cultivated in shallow mixed ponds or semiclosed tubular photobioreactors. Actuellement disponible : souche d’Arthrospira Platensis biotype Paracas Pour vous faciliter la mise en culture de l’inoculum ; des fertilisants prés pesés vous sont proposés : Nourriture N50. A strikingly high frequency of side effects and very low consumer satisfaction were reported by a group of consumers supplementing Aphanizomenon-based products. For both chlorella and spirulina, some of the most common side effects you hear about are diarrhea/constipation, flatulence, green discoloration of the stools, stomach cramping, and nausea. The S. platensis biomass is rich in proteins (approximately 70%), amino acids, vitamins, especially B12 and several pigments like carotenoids, Food Chem Toxicol 34:353, Salazar M, Martinez E, Madrigal L, Ruiz LE, Chamorro GA (1998), Sánchez M, Bernal-Castillo J, Rozo C, Rodríguez I (2003), screening method for antioxidants and isolation of several. Chlorophyll a and carotenoids were increased in NaCl concentration up to 0.15 M followed by a decrease at higher concentrations. provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. On the other hand total phycobilins increased at the most lower concentration of NaCl (0.05 M), then it decreased with increasing NaCl concentration compared to control. Arthrospira platensis Gomont, 1892 Arthrospira platensis est une espèce de cyanobactéries (anciennement appelées algues bleues) de la famille des Phormidiaceae ou des Microcoleaceae, selon les classifications, et du genre Arthrospira. And, dietary hypercholesterolemia caused by cholesterol feeding was cured by spirulina feeding.The fatty liver caused by high-fat and high-cholesterol diets was also cured rapidly by feeding spirulina. “Cyanobacteria and, cyanobacterial toxins in the alkaline crater lakes Sonachi and Simbi, Kenya.” Harmful. VAT IT 01814470934 It is comprised of at least 60% all-vegetable protein, essential vitamins and phytonutrients such as the rare essential fatty acid GLA, sulfolipids, glycolipids and polysaccharides. It was observed that Arthrospira platensis is richer in saturated fatty acids (FA) and Chlorella vulgaris richer in monounsaturated FA. In addition, post-mortem examination found no abnormalities in the gross findings. It was expected from these results that spirulina may prevent dietary hypercholesterolemia and arteriosclerosis. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. KeywordsAcute toxicity- results among groups were minor and, most importantly, were not dose-related. For the subchronic toxicity test, the extract at doses of 6, 12, and 24mgkg−1 body weight was orally administered to six male and six female Wistar rats daily for 12weeks. We demonstrate that the most efficient hypolimnetic aeration system is the bubble plume diffuser; although accidental destratification may occur. for 8 additional days. Spirulina . The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems. Natural Products Research Center, Faculty of Science. Becker W (2003) Microalgae in human and animal nutrition. The presence of antioxidants in our extract was, visualized as many bright spots on purple background of TLC, Results obtained in mice clearly demonstrated the safety, weight (BW), it did not cause any toxicity. Nowadays, Spirulina has been marketed and consumed as a human food and has been approved as a food for human consumption by many governments, health agencies, and associations of almost countries ( Becker and Venkataraman, 1984; Vonshak, 2002; … In: Richmond A (ed) Handbook of microalgal culture, biotechnology, and applied phycology. Winter FS, Emakam F, Kfutwah A, et al. It was identified at, the Songkhla Provincial Fisheries Office where a voucher, at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of, powder using a grinder and a sieve no. Arthrospira Platensis Harmful. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. Due to their excessive costs and the relatively insignificant outcomes of some of these techniques, the process of artificial aeration is one of the most promising methods. Thirty ischaemic heart disease patients without any complications of the disease and with blood cholesterol levels above 250mg/dl were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 10 each for supplementation of Spirulina. C'est l'espèce principale qui se cache derrière le nom commun spiruline, avec l'espèce Arthrospira maxima. In: Vonshak A (ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): physiology, cell-biology and biotechnology. Those individuals who had consulted specialists as to the use of supplements reported adverse events significantly less often. The dried powder, (0.5 kg) was successively extracted by maceration with, and evaporated to dryness in vacuo. The temperature optimum for this organism is … In this study, we examined the effects of Spirulina platensis, a multicellular filamentous blue-green algae currently used world-wide as a food supplement, upon acute and subchronic treatments to rodents. Variation of microcystins, cyanobacterial hepatotoxin in Anabaena spp. Elevation in total cholesterol, LDL+VLDL cholesterol, and phosholipids in serum caused by cholesterol feeding (Group 2) were reduced clearly by feeding (Group 4). 689 25 Arthrospira (Sp irulin a) 25.4 Occurrence and Distribution . The Higher Institute of Public Health in its report, lists some of these toxic algae that can be commonly found in our country: Spirulina, or rather the Arthrospira type (species: Platensis) is not part of these toxic cyanobacteria. These results thus suggest that the methanol extract of A. platensis did not cause acute or subchronic toxicity in our experimental animals. Our results thus demonstrate for the first time that short-term and long-term consumptions of S. platensis, up to high feeding levels, did not produce any adverse effects in experimental animals. Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima, which are commonly used as food, dietary supplement, and feed supplement (Wikfors and Ohno, 2001). NEVER DISREGARD PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ADVICE OR DELAY SEEKING MEDICAL TREATMENT BECAUSE OF SOMETHING YOU HAVE READ ON OR ACCESSED THROUGH THIS WEB SITE. Prior to the present study, there was no compiled data on adverse symptoms associated with Chlorella use; the only events that had been reported included a unique case of recurrent psychosis (Selvaraj et al. Bien que communément appelée « spiruline » (« spirulina » en anglais), cette cyanobactérie appartient au genre Arthrospira . In this study, the influence of NaCl salinity on growth and some metabolites has been investigated. Arthrospira Platensis Harmful (Spirulina) Maxima and Arthropira (Spirulina) Platensis. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. If we then add that, among the most dangerous algal toxins, there are the microcystins, a family of hepatotoxins capable of causing very serious damage to the liver, we are faced with a strange paradox: How is it that a seaweed, which according to some researches has a detoxifying and repairing effect on the liver, can at the same time be potentially deleterious and harmful to that same organ, or to others? tenuis (Rao) Desikachary . Algae 4 (1):139-150. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2004.01.001. Panel III Guidelines. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), ASHP (updated … With the aim to ensure the quality and safety of a traditional medicinal plant, this study was carried out to investigate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Prosopis juliflora on Wistar rats. In summary, the present study highlights that microalgal consumers may benefit from additional warnings of potential side effects and from consulting a qualified health specialist prior to use. Life Sci J 2015;12(5):71-78]. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;64:2206-12. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. ... MCYST analogs have also been identified in several dietary supplements based on spirulina (Arthospira)a non-toxic blue-green algae. This study aims to investigate the effects of Aza on Arthrospira platensis growth and antioxidant parameters. Application of both algae onto the skin of albino rats, up to 2000 mg/kg of body weight, did not elicit any skin allergy. This study aims at evaluating the neuroprotective role of Spirulina maxima (Sp.) Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), one of the oldest life forms on earth, is known to have exceptionally high nutritional values.With a protein percentage of 50-70%, Spirulina is a very rich vegetable protein source in which all essential amino acids are represented. Spirulina is an alga that has a high nutritional value and some of its biological activities are attributed to the presence of antioxidants. Thus, building on earlier results of ameliorated neurobehavioral and cognitive abilities in Spirulina supplemented protein deprived rats, the present study incorporates neurochemical and morphometric analysis of glial cells and neurons and revealed that maternal Spirulina consumption partially prevented the PMN associated neuropathological alterations in terms of attenuated oxidative brain damage, reduced reactive gliosis and apoptotic cell population, improved dendritic branch complexity with few damaged neurons and enhanced mushroom shaped spine density. Such incidence was arisen from an unknown cause and, which is known to be rich in antioxidants such as phenolic, prepared. and Spirulina sp. Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont is the scientific name of the commercial spirulina, a photosynthetic bacteria, commonly called ‘blue-green algae’ (Small, 2011), rich in protein, vitamins, essential amino acids, minerals, essential fatty acids and antioxidants pigments (Belay, Kato, & … Health safety of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) for food application was evaluated through hematology and histopathology of liver, spleen and kidney in Sprague Dawley rats fed on three isoproteic diets maintained to 10% protein for forty five days. respectively. First of all it is important to make some clarifications: a) when we talk about spirulina we refer to one of the about 2000 families of cyanobacteria present in nature, which are not only very different from each other, morphologically, biochemically and physiologically, but live, feed, replicate in different places and in different chemical and physical conditions. … Spirulina consumption (10 -40 g) has no any adverse effect on kidney, liver, reproductive and physiological functioning. By investigating the effect of different levels of salinity on total antioxidant capacity; the results obtained revealed that, with the increase in concentration of NaCl up to 0.20 M, a progressively greater increase in the activity of the total antioxidants above the respective control was observed, while the minimum activity was detected at the most highest concentration of NaCl. Arthrospira platensis has been found in environments with high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300-5000 mg/kg. There is now agreement that they are a distinct genera, and that the food species belong to Arthrospira; nonetheless, the older term Spirulina remains the popular name. These and other Arthrospira species were once class ified in the genus Spirulina . While many bacteria are known for their pathogenic effects, A. platensis is primarily known across the world for its potential nutritional value. 1959. good quality protein as well as being rich in vitamins, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin, this cyanobacterium has, food and special feeds has occurred since the 1970s (Sánchez, utilized for many years without any reports of undesirable, effect in living organisms, and its safety evaluations for, Despite a number of toxicological reports having concluded. Since this material contains chlorophyll a, Jike higher plants, botanists classify it as a microalgae belonging to Cyanophyceae class; but according to bacteriologists it is a bacteria dueto its prokaryotic structure. The information on this site is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. The Sprague-Dawley-strain rats were devided and classified into four groups: (1) the rats fed on the basal diets, (2) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 1% cholesterol, (3) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 16% spirulina, and (4) the rats fed on the basal diets containing 16% spirulina and 1% cholesterol.The results obtained were as follows. Spirulina is a microalgae that has been consumed for centuries due to its high nutritional value and supposed health benefits. For the subchronic toxicity study, two separate experiments were also performed to evaluate both forms of S. platensis. 20 mL algal culture were ino Group C served as control. The techniques used for the restoration of lakes or to prevent eutrophication are numerous (chemical, biologic, mechanical, etc). Spirulina contains around 60% protein in dry form. 2015). however, appeared in two control male livers (not shown). Not only is it a natural toner for your skin, it also can aid in the treatment of dark circles and beyond! of propylene glycol/water/Tween 80 at various, Mean blood chemistry values in rats treated with, Mean hematological values in rats treated, have revealed that the dried form of this, ) and might not be specifically related to treatment since, ). against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity, used as a model of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to fill this gap and surveyed a group of Polish consumers of microalgal products (n = 150) using an online questionnaire. A novel industrial Arthrospira platensis cultivation process with a CO 2 bicarbonation absorber The novel industrial A. platensis cultivation process using a CO 2 bicarbonation absorber is outlined in Fig. Dried extract was then, stored at 4°C in sterilized sealed plastic con, away from light until use. If we go to read the details of Gilroy’s multifaceted study, this is exactly what happened: the 87 samples of Spirulina algae examined came from the crops of the Upper Klamath Lake, a natural basin located in Oregon, in which there were in those years several blooms of M aeruginosa, an alga able to produce very dangerous hepatotoxins. We will try to give an accurate answer supported by clear evidence. However, preliminary studies suggest that spirulina holds pro… It has been reported in literature that the use of these microalgae as animal food supplement implies enhancement of the yellow coloration of skin and eggs yo !k in poultry and flaDlÍOgos, growth acceleration, sexual maturation and increase of fertility in cattle. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium, or blue-green algae, belonging to the Arthrospira genus. Taylor & Francis Ltd, London, pp 159–173, 233 pp Google Scholar Lee YK (1997) Commercial production of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific rim. Improved growth and most of the investigated metabolites were determined with the culture grown under salinity up to 0.15 M of NaCl compared to control. Therefore, the long history use of. Human verification (required): 4 + 1 = . As a consequence, they we, interpreted as biological variability normally found in rats, offers health benefit because of the connection between, high blood cholesterol concentration and the incidence of, postulated that the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of, excretion of cholesterol via inhibition of both jejunal, cholesterol absorption and ileal bile acid reabsorption, phycocyanin, has recently been identified to play a crucial, however, we did not observe any significant reductions of, Throughout this study, the total WBC numbers were, normal and lymphocytes were the major WBC popula-, tions as reported in literature (Matsuda e, Peripheral blood lymphocytes of adult rats are predomi-, In conclusion, we have investigated both acute and, subchronic toxicities of the methanol extract of, Our results suggest that this extract at the doses tested did, not cause any toxic effects to the experimental animals, when administered orally. A. platensis-M2 was obtained from the Soley Microalgae Institute (California, USA) (Culture collection No, SLSP01). platensis , we review studies on the isolation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and other aspects of S. They are undifferentiated and filamentous.

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